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Table 2 Chemical composition of plant essential oils

From: Synergy in the adulticidal efficacy of essential oils for the improvement of permethrin toxicity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

No. Chemical constituent RICalca RILitb Percentage composition (%)
C. rotundus A. galanga C. verum
1 α-Pinene 940 944   0.78 0.74
2 Camphene 957 961    0.47
3 Benzaldehyde 967 971    1.14
4 β-Pinene 983 985   1.40 0.34
5 Limonene 1033 1035   1.24 0.74
6 1,8-Cineole 1039 1040   10.17 1.36
7 Linalool 1100 1111    0.47
8 3-Phenylpropanal 1168 1170    4.09
9 Borneol 1180 1181    1.13
10 Terpinen-4-ol 1186 1188    1.18
11 Α-Terpineol 1202 1211    2.45
12 Myrtenol 1202 1212 2.36   
13 Cinnamaldehyde 1225 1305    64.66
14 Chavicol 1345 1346   10.09  
15 α-Cubebene 1353 1355 7.53   0.36
16 Geranyl acetate 1376 1377   1.84  
17 α-Copaene 1385 1386 7.97   5.83
18 β-Elemene 1395 1395   2.76  
19 α-Guaiene 1395 1396 2.73   
20 Methyl eugenol 1399 1407   2.17  
21 Cyperene 1418 1419 14.04   
22 α-Santalene 1425 1426   1.13  
23 β-Caryophyllene 1431 1432 1.18   1.63
24 Cinnamic acid 1436 1438    0.46
25 α-Bergamotene 1441 1442   16.28  
26 Cinnamyl acetate 1450 1452    6.61
27 β-Farnesene 1453 1454   4.55  
28 cis-9-Dodecenyl acetate 1457 1459 3.34   
29 γ-Muurolene 1483 1483 3.16   
30 α-Curcumene 1485 1485   1.14  
31 Pentadecane 1503 1503   7.50  
32 α-Muurolene 1506 1506 1.93   
33 δ-Guaiene 1511 1511 2.22   
34 β-Bisabolene 1516 1517   18.27  
35 δ-Cadinene 1524 1525 2.37   1.15
36 L-Calamenene 1530 1531    0.66
37 β-Sesquiphellandrene 1532 1533   5.37  
38 Calamenene 1533 1534 9.57   
39 4b,5,6,7,8,8a,9,10-Octahydro-1-methylphenanthrene 1543 1544 2.55   
40 4,7-Dimethyl-1-tetralone 1558 1559 0.95   
41 β-Caryophyllene epoxide 1596 1597 4.90   1.39
42 Cadina-1,4-diene 1637 1638    0.38
43 Ledene 1668 1669 3.39   
44 8-Heptadecene 1675 1676   0.91  
45 Cadalene 1683 1683 2.95   
46 Oxo-α-Ylangene 1687 1694 1.20   
47 Isopetasan 1714 1715 5.88   
48 Farnesyl acetate 1831 1831   1.15  
  Total identified    80.22 86.75 97.24
  No. of identified constituents    19 17 21
  1. aRetention indices are determined using n-alkanes (C8-C40)
  2. bRetention indices of reference compounds from literature