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Table 4 Adulticidal activity of permethrin and its combinations with EO or PBO against pyrethroid susceptible (MCM-S) and resistant (PMD-R) strains of Ae. aegypti

From: Synergy in the adulticidal efficacy of essential oils for the improvement of permethrin toxicity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

Chemical/mosquito %mortality Adulticidal activity (95% CI, ng/mg female) χ2 df SE RC SR Effect
(ng/mg female) (mean ± SE) LD50 LD95 LD99       
Permethrin (PE)
MCM-S   0.44 0.76 0.89 0.52 2 0.62 5.17 ND ND
 0.3 22.25 ± 1.36 (0.41–0.46) (0.69–0.86) (0.80–1.03)       
 0.4 44.75 ± 0.91          
 0.5 60.75 ± 0.40          
 0.6 79.75 ± 0.85          
PMD-R   3.7 10.41 13.19 0.76 2 0.03 0.24 ND ND
 2 31.75 ± 1.48 (3.01–4.25) (9.18–12.40) (11.43–16.08)       
 4 56.50 ± 2.63          
 6 70.75 ± 1.70          
 8 84.75 ± 1.36          
PE+C. rotundus (LD25)
MCM-S   0.07 0.28 0.36 4.36 3 0.94 7.99 6.28 Synergistic
 0.0125 25.25 ± 1.89 (0.06–0.09) (0.24–0.34) (0.31–0.45)       
 0.025 35.75 ± 1.95          
 0.05 49.50 ± 2.47          
 0.1 61.75 ± 2.03          
 0.2 82.50 ± 1.01          
PMD-R   0.42 2.03 2.7 8.55 4 0.1 1.02 8.81 Synergistic
 0.125 29.25 ± 0.60 (0.09–0.65) (1.62–2.90) (2.12–3.96)       
 0.25 42.50 ± 0.81          
 0.5 63.50 ± 1.45          
 1 75.00 ± 1.25          
 1.5 85.75 ± 1.41          
 2 92.75 ± 2.23          
PE+A. galanga (LD25)
MCM-S   0.11 0.44 0.57 2.15 2 0.6 5.09 4 Synergistic
 0.0625 35.00 ± 1.25 (0.08–0.14) (0.38–0.52) (0.49–0.70)       
 0.125 57.00 ± 1.44          
 0.25 76.75 ± 0.83          
 0.5 96.75 ± 5.40          
PMD-R   0.003 0.015 0.021 5.51 2 17.88 135.02 1,233.33 Synergistic
 0.0015625 33.50 ± 1.20 (-0.031–0.008) (0.010–0.197) (0.013–0.290)       
 0.003125 53.50 ± 1.15          
 0.00625 71.75 ± 2.11          
 0.0125 86.50 ± 1.09          
PE+C. verum (LD25)
MCM-S   0.42 0.89 1.08 0.88 3 0.43 3.53 1.05 No effect
 0.2 22.25 ± 1.78 (0.39–0.46) (0.79–1.05) (0.95–1.30)       
 0.3 34.00 ± 2.39          
 0.4 45.75 ± 2.34          
 0.5 57.50 ± 1.63          
 0.6 76.00 ± 1.83          
PMD-R   3.85 11.04 14.01 0.38 2 0.03 0.23 0.96 No effect
 2 32.00 ± 2.42 (3.14–4.43) (9.64–13.36) (12.03–17.36)       
 4 53.25 ± 2.82          
 6 69.75 ± 3.29          
 8 81.75 ± 3.42          
PE+PBO (LD25)
MCM-S   0.26 0.68 0.86 0.65 2 0.61 3.86 1.69 Synergistic
 0.2 41.00 ± 1.84 (0.21–0.29) (0.60–0.84) (0.74–1.10)       
 0.3 55.00 ± 2.18          
 0.4 73.75 ± 2.28          
 0.5 81.00 ± 1.95          
PMD-R   0.65 1.41 1.72 1.76 2 0.3 2.17 5.69 Synergistic
 0.4 26.25 ± 1.59 (0.58–0.71) (1.24–1.68) (1.50–2.11)       
 0.6 51.00 ± 2.14          
 0.8 63.25 ± 1.91          
 1 76.00 ± 2.28          
  1. Abbreviations: RC, regression coefficient, SR, synergistic ratio, ND, not determined