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Table 3 Results of faeces examination of red foxes in different regions of Poland

From: Prevalence of intestinal helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in central Europe (Poland): a significant zoonotic threat

  Overall (all regions)
(n = 344)
South-East
(n = 140)
North
(n = 92)
North-East
(n = 112)
Trematoda % Pos (95% CI) 43.3
(38.2–48.6)
7.9
(4.5–13.5)
62.0
(51.8–71.2)
72.3
(63.4–79.8)
EPG (CV%) 917.4
(249.6)
37.3
(95.0)
754.0
(210.7)
1154.0
(241.8)
Taeniidae % Pos (95% CI) 11.3
(8.4–15.1)
14.3
(9.5–21.0)
2.2
(0.6–7.6)
15.2
(9.7–23.0)
EPG (CV%) 800.0
(298.9)
1244.3
(261.1)
115.0
(79.9)
331.8
(131.9)
Mesocestoides spp. % Pos (95% CI) 3.5
(2.0–6.0)
2.1
(0.7–6.1)
6.5
(3.0–13.5)
2.7
(0.9–7.6)
EPG (CV%) 668.8
(182.0)
1,400.0
(92.9)
599.0
(237.3)
69.0
(106.3)
Toxocara spp. % Pos (95% CI) 25.0
(20.7–29.8)
20.0
(14.2–27.4)
22.8
(15.5–32.4)
33.0
(25.0–42.2)
EPG (CV%) 321.9
(146.9)
344.4
(149.5)
341.9
(139.0)
289.4
(152.2)
Toxascaris leonina % Pos (95% CI) 5.2
(3.3–8.1)
8.6
(5.0–14.4)
0.0
(0.0–4.0)
5.4
(2.5–11.2)
EPG (CV%) 348.2
(109.0)
527.0
(109.3)
199.2
(76.6)
Hookworms % Pos (95% CI) 15.4
(12.0–19.6)
10.0
(6.1–16.1)
30.4
(22.0–40.5)
9.8
(5.6–16.7)
EPG (CV%) 276.6
(336.2)
577.6
(301.8)
209.5
(172.7)
64.1
(95.3)
Trichuris vulpis % Pos (95% CI) 1.7
(0. 8–3.8)
0.7
(0.1–3.9)
4.3
(1.7–10.7)
0.9
(0.2–4.9)
EPG (CV%) 128.1
(102.7)
88.3
(77.3)
90.0
(106.3)
400.0
Capillaria a % Pos (95% CI) 76.2
(71.4–80.4)
65.7
(57.5–73.1)
84.8
(76.1–90.7)
82.1
(74.0–88.1)
EPG (CV%) 810.7
(230.6)
372.8
(186.0)
1,250.8
(231.4)
864.7
(164.2)
Coccidia % Pos (95% CI) 7.6
(5.2–11.0)
10. 0
(6.1–16.1)
4.3
(1.7–10.7)
7.1
(3.7–13.5)
OPG (CV%) 9785.6
(455.4)
17,283.6
(351.2)
271.5
(139.5)
1420.6
(172.7)
  1. aBecause of the lack of Capillaria worms in the intestines it should be classified as Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila)
  2. Abbreviations: % Pos. percentage of positive samples, EPG eggs per gram, OPG oocysts per gram, CV coefficient of variation, CI confidence interval