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Table 3 Univariate analysis of the association of knowledge of schistosomiasis and MDA with non-compliance to the last MDA conducted in Northern Samar, the Philippines (n = 2146)

From: Mass drug administration and the sustainable control of schistosomiasis: an evaluation of treatment compliance in the rural Philippines

Knowledge Response N Non-compliant Odds ratio 95% CI P-valuea
n (%)
Has heard of schistosomiasis No 21 14 (66.7) 1.00   
Yes 2125 578 (27.2) 0.15 0.05–0.45 0.001
Identified at least 1 schistosomiasis sign or symptom No 382 103 (27.0) 1.00   
Yes 1764 489 (27.7) 0.97 0.72–1.29 0.814
How schistosomiasis is acquired
 • Contact with infected areas/waters No 271 97 (35.8) 1.00   
Yes 1875 495 (26.4) 0.56 0.41–0.78 <0.001
 • Open defecation and poor sanitation No 1560 398 (25.5) 1.00   
Yes 586 194 (33.1) 1.48 1.16–1.88 0.001
 • Drinking dirty water No 1950 523 (26.8) 1.00   
Yes 196 69 (35.2) 1.43 1.00–2.05 0.053
 • Others No 2012 563 (28.0) 1.00   
Yes 134 29 (21.6) 0.64 0.39–1.04 0.072
Prevention and control
 • Can schistosomiasis be prevented? No 671 168 (25.0) 1.00   
Yes 1263 356 (28.2) 1.23 0.96–1.58 0.105
Don’t know 212 68 (32.1) 1.40 0.94–2.08 0.094
 • Avoid contact with infected water No 1511 411 (27.2) 1.00   
Yes 635 181 (28.5) 1.02 0.81–1.30 0.841
 • Participating in MDA No 1719 469 (27.3) 1.00   
Yes 427 123 (28.8) 1.18 0.90–1.56 0.235
 • Use sanitary toilets No 1828 495 (27.1) 1.00   
Yes 318 97 (30.5) 1.18 0.87–1.59 0.287
 • Avoid drinking dirty water No 1982 529 (26.7) 1.00   
Yes 164 63 (38.4) 1.66 1.13–2.46 0.011
 • Use rubber boots No 1963 549 (28.0) 1.00   
Yes 183 43 (23.5) 0.84 0.55–1.27 0.404
 • Other prevention and control methods No 2045 566 (27.7) 1.00   
Yes 101 26 (25.7) 0.94 0.56–1.59 0.819
Treatment
 • Can schistosomiasis be treated? No 119 39 (32.8) 1.00   
Yes 1924 504 (26.2) 0.71 0.45–1.13 0.140
Don’t know 103 49 (47.6) 1.95 1.03–3.69 0.040
 • Taking drugs to treat schistosomiasis No 729 226 (31.0) 1.00   
Yes 1417 366 (25.8) 0.78 0.62–0.99 0.040
 • Other ways schistosomiasis is treated No 1857 492 (26.5) 1.00   
Yes 289 100 (34.6) 1.48 1.08–2.02 0.014
 • Are there adverse reactions to praziquantel? No 577 157 (27.2) 1.00   
Yes 1243 305 (24.5) 0.77 0.59–1.02 0.067
Don’t know 326 130 (39.9) 2.14 1.49–3.07 <0.001
Praziquantel use
 • To treat schistosomiasis No 1257 338 (26.9) 1.00   
Yes 889 254 (28.6) 1.10 0.88–1.39 0.390
• For deworming No 2072 581 (28.0) 1.00   
Yes 74 11 (14.9) 0.49 0.24–1.01 0.054
Others No 2077 554 (26.7) 1.00   
Yes 69 38 (55.1) 3.12 1.76–5.54 <0.001
  1. aChi-square test