Skip to main content

Table 4 Bi-variable analysis of prevalence of anaemia and parasitaemia by malnourished status from cross-sectional surveys at the start and end of the transmission season

From: Is chronic malnutrition associated with an increase in malaria incidence? A cohort study in children aged under 5 years in rural Gambia

Variable Non-stunted children Stunted children P-valuea Non-wasted children Wasted children P-valuea Non-underweight children Underweight children P-valuea
Beginning of malaria transmission season (June 2011)
N 1715 796   2236 272   1892 624  
 Mean haemoglobin (g/dl) (95% CI) 10.72 (10.66–10.79) 10.06 (9.95–10.17) <0.001 10.54 (10.48–10.60) 10.34 (10.15–10.53) 0.04 10.63 (10.56–10.69) 10.18 (10.06–10.31) <0.001
 Mild anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dl) (n, %) 906 (52.8) 561 (70.5) <0.001 1296 (58.0) 168 (61.8) 0.2 1051 (55.5) 417 (66.8) <0.001
 Moderate anaemia (Hb < 8 g/dl) (n, %) 68 (4.0) 83 (10.4) <0.001 129 (5.8) 22 (8.1) 0.1 98 (5.2) 53 (8.5) 0.003
P. falciparum parasitaemia (n, %) 98 (5.7) 39 (4.9) 0.4 126 (5.6) 11 (4.0) 0.3 109 (5.8) 29 (4.6) 0.3
End of malaria transmission season (January 2012)b
N 1427 725   1949 177   1721 437  
 Mean haemoglobin (g/dl) (95% CI) 10.49 (10.41–10.58) 9.73 (9.60–9.85) <0.001 10.26 (10.18–10.33) 9.96 (9.69–10.23) 0.03 10.37 (10.29–10.45) 9.72 (9.54–9.89) <0.001
 Mild anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dl) (n, %) 798 (55.9) 532 (73.4) <0.001 1203 (61.7) 113 (63.8) 0.6 1024 (59.5) 307 (70.3) <0.001
 Moderate anaemia (Hb < 8 g/dl) (n, %) 91 (6.4) 116 (16.0) <0.001 183 (9.4) 22 (12.4) 0.2 136 (7.9) 70 (16.0) <0.001
 Severe anaemia (Hb < 5 g/dl) (n, %) 2 (0.1) 2 (0.3) 0.5 4 (0.2) 0 0.5 2 (0.1) 2 (0.5) 0.1
P. falciparum parasitaemia (n, %) 179 (12.5) 108 (14.9) 0.1 259 (13.3) 22 (12.4) 0.7 224 (13.0) 62 (14.2) 0.5
  1. aTwo sided t-test or Chi-square test
  2. bChildren with z-scores of more than 4 or less than -4 not included and anthropometric data from children aged > 5 years at end of transmission survey were censored