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Table 5 Multivariable analysis of risk of at least one malaria episode during the follow-up period by malnutrition and other factors measured at start of transmission season survey

From: Is chronic malnutrition associated with an increase in malaria incidence? A cohort study in children aged under 5 years in rural Gambia

Risk factor (N = 2527) Malaria episode, n (%) Odds ratiob (95% CI) P-value Adjusted oddsc ratio (95% CI) P-value
Stuntinga
 No 259/1715 (15.1) 1   1  
 Yes 88/796 (11.1) 0.75 (0.57–0.98) 0.04 0.79 (0.60–1.05) 0.11
Wastinga
 No 310/2,236 (13.9) 1    
 Yes 33/272 (12.1) 0.85 (0.56–1.27) 0.42   
Underweighta
 No 268/1892 (14.2) 1    
 Yes 77/624 (12.3) 0.93 (0.69–1.24) 0.61   
Mean age (years) 1.41 (1.28–1.56) <0.001 1.40 (1.27–1.55) <0.001
Gender
 Male 180/1348 (13.4)     
 Female 167/1179 (14.2) 1.01 (0.79–1.29) 0.93   
Ethnicity
 Fula 139/1073 (13.0) 1   1  
 Mandinka 195/1205 (16.2) 1.47 (0.95–2.28) 0.09 1.52 (0.98–2.36) 0.06
 Other 13/245 (5.3) 0.44 (0.19–1.03) 0.06 0.52 (0.22–1.20) 0.13
Mean haemoglobin (g/dl) 1.03 (0.95–1.12) 0.44   
Mild anaemia
 No 157/1051 (14.9) 1    
 Yes 190/1476 (12.9) 0.79 (0.62–1.02) 0.07   
Moderate anaemia
 No 319/2376 (13.4) 1    
 Yes 28/151 (18.5) 1.40 (0.88–2.23) 0.16   
P. falciparum parasitaemia
 No 325/2388 (13.6) 1    
 Yes 22/139 (15.8) 1.04 (0.62–1.73) 0.88   
Village location
 South bank 218/1224 (17.8) 1    
 North bank 129/1303 (9.9) 0.47 (0.29–0.78) 0.003 0.48 (0.29–0.79) 0.004
House construction
 Modern 188/1454 (12.9) 1    
 Traditionalb 159/1073 (14.8) 1.08 (0.83–1.41) 0.55   
Slept under an LLIN
 No 2/16 (12.5) 1    
 Yes 327/2366 (13.8) 1.07 (0.21–5.36) 0.94   
House received IRS-DDT
 No 176/1258 (14.0)     
 Yes 171/1269 (13.5) 0.97 (0.57–1.64) 0.90   
Distance from health post or health facility (km) 1.03 (0.97–1.10) 0.34   
  1. aStunted N = 2511; Wasted N = 2508; Underweight N = 2516. These numbers differ from N = 2527 since children with z-scores of more than 4 or less than -4 were removed
  2. bAt least 50% of rooms with mud walls and thatched roof
  3. cAdjusted for clustering