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Table 3 Diversity of tick-borne microorganisms in Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks infesting free-living ungulates. Values represent numbers of positive/examined tick samples and prevalence (in %)

From: Diverse tick-borne microorganisms identified in free-living ungulates in Slovakia

Tick/Host Capreolus capreolus Cervus elaphus Dama dama Ovis musimon Sus scrofa
(i) Ixodes ricinus
 Larvae
Anaplasma phagocytophilum 25/31 (27.7)a; 4b 5/6 (23.0)a; 3b 24/32 (22.0)a; 11b 5/5 (57.1)a; 4b  
Rickettsia sp. 14/31 (11.6)a   1/32 (0.6)a   
Rickettsia helvetica 1/31 (0.7)a 1/6 (3.1)a 3/32 (1.7)a   
Rickettsia monacensis    2/3 (21.2)a   
Coxiella burnetii    1/32 (0.6)a   
Babesia venatorum 3/31 (2.1)a     
Theileria sp. 19/31 (17.7)a; 7b 1/6 (3.1)a; 1b 11/32 (8.3)a; 8b   
Borrelia valaisiana 1/31 (0.75)a     
No. of animals infested with larvae 7 3 13 4 0
 Nymphs
Anaplasma phagocytophilum 30/59 (50.9); 5b 12/15 (80.0); 4b 62/101 (61.4); 9b 1/1 (100); 1b  
Rickettsia sp. 2/59 (3.4) 1/15 (6.7)    
Rickettsia helvetica 2/59 (3.4)   8/101 (7.9)   
Coxiella burnetii 4/59 (6.8)     
CNM 1/59 (1.7)     
Theileria sp. 17/59 (28.8); 7b 9/15 (60.0); 1b 22/101 (21.8); 10b   
Borrelia valaisiana    1/101 (1.0)   
Borrelia afzelii 1/59 (1.7)     
Borrelia garinii 1/59 (1.7)   1/101 (1.0)   
No. of animals infested with nymphs 9 4 12 1 1
 Females
Anaplasma phagocytophilum 2/3 (66.7); 1b 7/7 (100); 4b 54/58 (93.1); 14b 4/4 (100); 3b  
Rickettsia helvetica    8/58 (13.8) 1/4 (25.0)  
Coxiella burnetii    1/58 (1.7) 1/4 (25.0)  
CNM 2/3 (66.7)   1/58 (1.7)   
Babesia venatorum    1/58 (1.7)   
Theileria sp. 2/3 (66.7); 2b 3/7 (42.9); 3b 39/58 (67.2); 11b   
No. of animals infested with females 2 4 15 3 0
 Males
Anaplasma phagocytophilum 1/1 (100); 1b 2/3 (66.7); 1b 13/16 (81.2); 7b 1/1 (100); 1b  
Rickettsia sp. 1/1 (100)     
Rickettsia helvetica    1/16 (6.2)   
Theileria sp. 0/1 (0); 0 1/3 (33.3); 1b 8/16 (50.0); 4b   
Borrelia valaisiana    1/16 (6.2)   
No. of animals infested with males 1 1 8 1 0
(ii) Haemaphysalis concinna
 Larvae
Anaplasma phagocytophilum 2/12 (16.7); 2b   2/6 (33.3); 1b 1/1 (100); 1b  
Babesia sp. 2/12 (16.7)    1/1 (100)  
No. of animals infested with larvae 5 0 2 1 0
 Nymphs      
Theileria sp. 5/14 (35.7); 2b     
No. of animals infested with nymphs 2 0 2 0 0
  1. Abbreviation: CNM, “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis”
  2. aMLE, maximum likelihood estimation of infection prevalence
  3. bNumbers of A. phagocytophilum- or Theileria sp.-positive ungulates from which infected ticks were collected