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Table 2 Pearson’s chi-square results for distributions of physiological status in ground and canopy traps. Physiological statuses included were nulliparous, parous, gravid, blood-fed, and male. Nulliparous and parous counts were combined for C. venustus due to an inability to reliably determine parity. Males were excluded from the chi-square analysis for C. biguttatus since no male individuals were collected at either height. Private hunting preserve, Gadsden Co. FL, USA

From: Vertical stratification of Culicoides biting midges at a Florida big game preserve

Year Species χ 2 df P-value
2016 C. haematopotus 26.991 4 <0.001***
C. stellifer 266.05 4 <0.001***
C. venustus 10.656 3 0.014**
2017 C. arboricola 81.905 4 <0.001***
C. biguttatus 3.396 3 0.335
C. debilipalpis 4.660 4 0.324
C. haematopotus 81.905 4 <0.001***
C. insignis 10.05 4 0.04*
C. stellifer 107.83 4 <0.001***
C. venustus 13.273 3 0.004**
  1. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001