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Table 3 Environmental characteristics of the two Israeli Mediterranean climate regions examined in the current study: The Golan Heights (GH) and the Carmel mountain ridge (CMR)

From: Species distribution and seasonal dynamics of equine tick infestation in two Mediterranean climate niches in Israel

  GH CMR
Farms 3 2
Horses 49 65
Ticks 2417 782
Altitude (m) 420–980 119–320
Soil Grumusol Terra rosa
Basaltic protogrumusol Rendzina
Climate Mediterranean to Semi-arid Mediterranean
Annual rainfall (mm) 625–850 987
Average NVDI 0.04 0.06
Average EVI 0.024 0.03
LSTD (°C) 2–51 9–45
LSTN (°C) -3–28 1–26
Average humidity (%) 66 69
Rainfall July-August 0 0
Ambient temperature July-August (°C) 14–37 (avg. 25) 19–34 (avg. 26)
Average rainfall November-December (mm) 90 86
Rainy days November-December 17–24 20–22
Ambient temperature November-December (°C) -2–28.5 (avg. 13) 8–29 (avg. 17)
Average rainfall February-March (mm) 97 115
Rainy days February-March 20–28 20–22
Ambient temperature February-March (°C) -5–29 (avg. 12) 3–29 ( avg. 15)
Average rainfall May-June (mm) 1.3 2
Rainy days May-June 1 4
Ambient temperature May-June (°C) 6–40 (avg. 21) 11–39 (avg. 22)
  1. Abbreviations: avg average, NDVI normalized difference vegetation index, EVI enhanced vegetation index, LSTD land surface temperature in the day, LSTN land surface temperature in the night