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Table 1 Details of study sampling and sites including vector control coverage and insecticide resistance prevalence at baseline

From: Implications of insecticide resistance for malaria vector control with long-lasting insecticidal nets: trends in pyrethroid resistance during a WHO-coordinated multi-country prospective study

  Study sampling sites
Benin Cameroon India Kenya Sudan
Malaria transmission intensity High High Low High Low
Study locations Districts of Ifangni, Sakété, Pobé and Kétou (Departement de Plateau) Districts of Garoua, Pitoa and Mayo Oulo (North region) Subdistrict of Keshkal (Kondagaon, Chhattisgarh) Districts of Teso, Rachuonyo, Nyando and Bondo (western Kenya) El Hoosh and Hag Abdalla (Gezira State); Galabat (Gedarif State; New Halfa (Kassala State)
Number of clusters sampled 32 38 80 61 79
Entomological sampling points (years) 2011–2015 2012–2015 2013–2016 2011–2015 2011–2014
Main malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae (s.s.)a, Anopheles coluzziia An. arabiensisa, An. gambiae (s.s.)a, An. funestus An. culicfacies a An. gambiae (s.s.)a, An. arabiensisa, An. funestus An. arabiensis a
Vector control interventions High coverage of ITNs (primarily PermaNet 2.0) in all clusters High coverage of ITNs (PermaNet 2.0) in all clusters High coverage of ITNs (PermaNet 2.0) in all clusters High coverage of ITNs (PermaNet 2.0 and Olyset Net) in all clusters. Rachuonyo and Nyando received IRS with deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in 2012, but no IRS was carried out subsequently High coverage of ITNs (PermaNet 2.0) in all study clusters. In each study area half of clusters randomly allocated to receive additional IRS with bendiocarb
Baseline insecticide resistance information (cluster-specific range) Kdr frequency by cluster ranged from 44 to 93% (2011) WHO Bioassay mortality to deltamethrin ranged between 20–100% (2011) Kdr frequency by cluster ranged from 9 to 65% (2011) WHO Bioassay mortality to deltamethrin ranged between 43–100% (2012) WHO Bioassay mortality to deltamethrin ranged between 86–100% WHO Bioassay mortality to deltamethrin ranged between 1–100% (2011) Kdr frequency by cluster ranged from 8.3 to 70.8% (2010); WHO Bioassay mortality to deltamethrin in sentinel clusters ranged between 47–100% (2011)
  1. aMortality results presented for these species in the analyses