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Table 3 Impact of cluster-level bednet usage on mosquito mortality. Results from generalised mixed-effect models examining the impact of cluster-level bednet usage on mosquito mortality

From: Implications of insecticide resistance for malaria vector control with long-lasting insecticidal nets: trends in pyrethroid resistance during a WHO-coordinated multi-country prospective study

   All countries combineda Beninb Cameroonc Indiac Kenyab Sudanc
  No. of clusters included (year) 59 (2012); 87 (2013); 143 (2014); 99 (2015); 80 (2016) 19 (2015) 22 (2013); 26 (2014) 80 (2015); 80 (2016) 13(2012); 41 (2014) 46 (2012); 65 (2013); 76 (2014)
  Mean net usage (range) (%)   74.9 (52.5–100) 67.8 (7.0–100) 89.9 (60.9–100) 94.2 (73.7–100) 78.6 (0–100)
Effect of cluster-level net usage on mosquito mortality, OR (95% CI) < 40% 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  40–80% 1.03 (0.89–1.19) 1 (reference) 1.61 (1.21–2.14) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 0.69 (0.58–0.83)
  > 80% 0.65 (0.57–0.74) 1.59 (0.75–3.37) 1.40 (1.08–1.82) 0.36 (0.29–0.44) 2.38 (0.56–10.1) 0.45 (0.38–0.53)
  P-value <0.001 0.225 <0.001 <0.001 0.241 <0.001
  1. aAdjusted for country
  2. aAdjusted for district
  3. cAdjusted for district, temperature and humidity
  4. Results are presented in terms of change in mortality of mosquitoes for increasing bednet usage category (< 40%; between 40–80%; and above 80%). Bednet usage was calculated for years where cross-sectional survey data was available. Odds ratios are adjusted for locality and temperature and humidity where indicated. The results are shown for each country, as well as all countries combined (with country included as a covariate). Cluster was included as a random effect in all models