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Table 1 Questionnaire findings on KAP of schoolchildren and water quality results in schools in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal between March and May 2015

From: Intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts, Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Children Overall (N = 708) Dolakha (n = 555) Ramechhap (n = 153) P-valuea
KAP indicators N (%) n (%) n (%)  
Knowledge on handwashing
 Before eating 525 (74.2) 427 (76.9) 98 (64.1) 0.01
 After eating 434 (61.3) 357 (64.3) 77 (50.3) 0.01
 After playing 422 (59.6) 345 (62.2) 77 (50.3) 0.01
 After defaecation 534 (75.4) 427 (76.9) 107 (69.9) 0.08
Handwashing practices
 Before eating 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 After eating 473 (66.8) 387(69.7) 86 (56.2) 0.01
 After playing 428 (60.6) 345 (62.2) 83 (54.3) 0.08
 After defaecation 641 (90.5) 505 (91.0) 136 (88.9) 0.43
Handwashing with
 Water 687 (97.0) 540 (97.3) 147 (96.1) 0.43
 Ash 17 (2.4) 12 (2.2) 5 (3.3) 0.43
 Mud, soil 4 (0.6) 4 (0.7) 0 (0) 0.29
 Soap 689 (97.3) 539 (97.1) 150 (98.0) 0.53
Why wash hands with soap?
 Remove germs 196 (27.7) 137 (24.7) 59 (38.6)
 Prevent illness 365 (51.5) 306 (55.1) 59 (38.6)  
 Clean hands 94 (13.3) 61 (11.0) 33 (21.6)  
 Don’t know 78 (11.0) 65 (11.7) 13 (8.5)  
Hygiene
 Better category 261 (36.9) 225 (40.5) 36 (23.5) 0.01
 Middle category 211 (29.8) 165 (29.7) 46 (30.1)  
 Poor category 236 (33.3) 165 (29.7) 71 (46.4)  
Sanitary practices at school
 Use latrine at school 679 (95.9) 543 (97.8) 136 (88.9) <0.001
 No latrine use 29 (4.1) 12 (2.2) 17 (11.1)  
Reasons for not using latrine (n = 17)
 Dirty 12 (70.6) 1 (50.0) 11 (73.3) 0.09
 No soap 1 (5.9) 0 (0) 1 (6.7)  
 Not functional 2 (11.8) 0 (0) 2 (13.3)  
 Other 1 (5.9) 0 (0) 1 (6.7)  
 No response 1 (5.9) 1 (50.0) 0 (0)  
Defaecation location if not using latrine (n = 17)
 Bush 13 (76.5) 2 (100) 11 (73.3) 0.40
 Behind the latrine 4 (23.5) 0 (0) 4 (26.7)  
Opinion on whether dirty water causes illness
 Yes 694 (98.0) 544 (98.0) 150 (98.0) 0.99
 No 14 (2.0) 11 (2.0) 3 (2.0)  
Knowledge on illnesses caused by dirty water
 Diarrhoea 458 (64.7) 377 (67.9) 81 (52.9) <0.001
 Cholera 138 (19.5) 108 (19.5) 30 (19.6) 0.97
 Skin irritation 47 (6.6) 31 (5.6) 16 (10.5) 0.03
 Icterus 12 (1.7) 11 (2.0) 1 (0.7) 0.26
 Typhus 41 (5.8) 38 (6.9) 3 (2.0) 0.02
 Malaria 14 (2.0) 12 (2.2) 2 (1.3) 0.50
 Eye irritation/disease 9 (1.3) 9 (1.6) 0 (0) 0.11
 Worms, parasites 72 (10.2) 58 (10.5) 14 (9.2) 0.64
Perception on becoming sick by not washing hands by schoolchildren
 Yes 696 (98.3) 543 (97.8) 153 (100) 0.50
 No 5 (0.7) 5 (0.9) 0 (0)  
 Not sure 7 (1.0) 7 (1.3) 0 (0)  
Drinking water
 Drinking water from school 637 (90.0) 535 (96.4) 102 (66.7) <0.001
 Bringing water from home 102 (14.4) 67 (12.1) 35 (22.9) 0.01
  1. aP-values calculated by χ2 test; values in boldface indicate statistically significant differences