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Table 4 Results from univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses for parasitic infection in two districts of Nepal in March-May 2015. The multivariate global model includes a random intercept at the level of school adjusting sex, age and district, where all the variables were assessed one by one and retained for the global model if their P-value is < 0.2 in univariate analysis (values in bold). The final model was obtained by using backward selection with the same level of 0.2

From: Intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts, Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Risk factor N = 562 Any parasitic infection (n = 236)
Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
n (%) OR 95% CI P aOR 95% CI P a
Sex
 Female 282 (50.2) 1.00    1.00   
 Male 280 (49.8) 1.10 0.77–1.58 0.60 1.09 0.75–1.59 0.64
Age
 13–16 years 440 (78.3) 1.00      
 8–12 years 122 (21.7) 0.65 0.42–1.03 0.07 0.61 0.38–0.99 0.04
District
 Dolakha 444 (79.0) 1.00     
 Ramechhap 118 (21.0) 0.77 0.25–2.39 0.65 0.93 0.30– 2.90 0.90
Hygiene behaviour
 Lower category 245 (31.1) 1.00      
 Middle category 142 (25.3) 0.87 0.55–1.38 0.56    
 Higher category 175 (31.1) 0.89 0.57–1.37 0.59    
Drinking water consumption
 From school 491 (87.4) 1.00      
 From home 71 (12.6) 0.85 0.48–1.49 0.56    
Water risk behaviour
 Playing (yes vs no) 173 (30.8) 1.12 0.76–1.66 0.57    
 Fishing (yes vs no) 68 (12.1) 1.04 0.59–1.82 0.89    
 Laundry (yes vs no) 199 (35.4) 1.23 0.82–1.85 0.32    
 Domestic chores (yes vs no) 142 (25.3) 1.18 0.75–1.87 0.48    
Sanitary practices
 Using latrine at school (yes vs no) 550 (97.9) 0.69 0.26–1.85 0.47    
Ethnicity of children
 Tamang 13 (37.9) 1.00      
 Brahmin 101 (18.0) 1.08 0.62–1.90 0.78 1.20 0.67–2.17 0.53
 Chhetri 210 (37.4) 0.97 0.61–1.53 0.89 1.00 0.62–1.62 0.99
 Newar 33 (5.9) 1.32 0.55–3.16 0.54 1.29 0.52–3.17 0.58
 Janajati 5 (0.9) 3.60 0.50–25.97 0.20 3.98 0.52–30.54 0.18
Caregiver’s education
 Never went to school 210 (37.4) 1.00      
 Primary education 144 (25.6) 0.91 0.55–1.51 0.71 1.00 0.60–1.69 1.00
 Secondary education 143 (25.4) 0.98 0.54–1.79 0.96 1.27 0.67–2.41 0.47
 Higher education 65 (11.6) 0.70 0.31–1.62 0.41 0.90 0.38–2.16 0.82
Caregiver’s occupation
 Farmer 458 (81.5) 1.00     
 Public services 39 (6.9) 0.62 0.29–1.37 0.24 0.55 0.24–1.25 0.15
 Business 40 (7.1) 0.87 0.39–1.93 0.73 0.87 0.37–2.04 0.75
 Other 25 (4.5) 0.36 0.13–0.96 0.04 0.35 0.13–0.99 0.05
Socioeconomic status
 Poor 298 (53.0) 1.00      
 Average 215 (38.3) 1.34 0.91–1.98 0.14 1.29 0.86–1.92 0.22
 High 49 (8.7) 1.02 0.53–1.99 0.95 0.88 0.45–1.76 0.73
Drinking water in dry season
 Private tap 287 (51.1) 1.00      
 Protected spring 13 (2.3) 1.84 0.50–6.81 0.36    
 Public tap 36 (6.4) 1.31 0.51–3.26 0.53    
 Other 226 (40.2) 1.16 0.75–1.79 0.50    
Drinking water in rainy season
 Private tap 285 (50.7) 1.00      
 Protected spring 1 (0.2) na      
 Public tap 44 (7.8) 1.12 0.49–2.54 0.79    
 Other 232 (41.3) 1.31 0.86–2.01 0.21    
Water sufficiency for drinking and household chores 439 (78.1) 0.85 0.50–1.42 0.53    
Frequency of washing drinking water container with soap
 Daily 347 (61.7) 1.00      
 Never 40 (7.1) 1.41 0.65–3.06 0.39    
 Weekly 175 (31.1) 1.36 0.85–2.17 0.20    
Container for fetching water
 Metal 264 (31.1) 1.00      
 Plastic 258 (61.7) 1.22 0.79–1.89 0.37    
 Clay pot 40 (7.1) 0.56 0.23–1.37 0.21    
Status of drinking water container
 Covered 417 (74.2) 1.00      
 Uncovered 145 (25.8) 1.01 0.64–1.61 0.96    
Drinking water container used for other activity (yes vs no) 111 (19.8) 1.35 0.78–2.33 0.29    
Water treatment prior to consumption (yes vs no) 76 (13.5) 0.74 0.41–1.35 0.33    
Water contamination with thermotolerant coliform (yes vs no) 154 (27.4) 1.06 0.70–1.60 0.79    
Sanitation in the household
 Water seal latrine 283 (50.4) 1.00      
 No latrine 168 (29.9) 0.92 0.55–1.54 0.76    
 Open pit latrine with slab 97 (17.3) 0.75 0.41–1.35 0.33    
 Open pit latrine without slab 14 (2.5) 1.07 0.33–3.46 0.90    
Soap for handwashing available (no vs yes) 417 (74.2) 1.85 1.18–2.92 0.01 1.81 1.13–2.89 0.01
Waste disposal (yes vs no) 273 (48.6) 1.03 0.70–1.52 0.88    
Domestic animals
Possession of domestic animals (yes vs no) 507 (90.2) 1.07 0.57–2.02 0.83    
Animals held outside the house (yes vs no) 307 (54.6) 0.89 0.57–1.39 0.62    
  1. aP-values < 0.05 in multivariate analyses are marked in boldface