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Table 4 Co-infection prevalence (%) between studied pathogens in I. ricinus and I. persulcatus samples

From: Tick-borne pathogens in Finland: comparison of Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus in sympatric and parapatric areas

Species Collection area No. of ticks analysed No. (%) of ticks co-infected B. b. (s.l.) + Rickettsia spp. B. b. (s.l.) + Anaplasma spp. B. b. (s.l.) + Babesia spp. B. b. (s.l.) + “Ca. N. mikurensis” Babesia spp. + Rickettsia spp. Anaplasma spp. + Rickettsia spp.
I. ricinus 1 994 33 (3.2) 17 (1.6) 2 (0.2) 3 (0.3) 6 (0.6) 1 (0.1) 4 (0.4)
2 998 16 (1.6) 13 (1.3) 1 (0.1) 0 0 2 (0.2) 0
3 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
a 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal   2014 49 (2.4) 30 (1.5) 3 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 6 (0.3) 3 (0.2) 4 (0.2)
I. persulcatus 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 1160 9 (0.8) 9 (0.8) 0 0 0 0 0
3 261 2 (0.8) 2 (0.8) 0 0 0 0 0
a 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal   1451 11 (0.8) 11 (0.8) 0 0 0 0 0
Total   3465 60 (1.7) 41 (1.2) 3 (0.1) 3 (0.1) 6 (0.2) 3 (0.1) 4 (0.1)
  1. Abbreviations: B.b. (s.l.), Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.); 1, I. ricinus-dominated area in south Finland; 2, sympatric area of both species in middle Finland; 3, I. persulcatus-dominated area in north Finland (Fig. 1a)
  2. aTick samples that were not categorized into collection areas due to inaccurate collection information provided by citizens