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Table 5 Summary of main clinico-epidemiological studies carried out in dogs in continents other than Europe

From: Bartonella infections in cats and dogs including zoonotic aspects

Continent Area or country Bartonella spp. seroprevalence (%) PCR / culture prevalence (%) Confirmed Bartonella spp. and type Reference
Africa East nf PCR: 0 nf [269]
Central nf PCR: 2.3 B. clarridgeiae, B. henselae [27]
North 19.5–47.4 PCR: 0.85–37.1 B. clarridgeiae, B. elizabethae, B. henselae, B. rochalimae, B. vinsonii berkhoffii [230, 270,271,272]
South 14 PCR: 0–9.0; Culture: 0 B. henselae [233, 273, 274]
West nf PCR: 0 nf [275]
Asia Middle East 6.6–47.4 Culture and PCR: 9.2–37.1 Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii”, B. vinsonii berkhoffii (type III in one study) [276,277,278]
South Korea nf PCR: 0–29.6 B. clarridgeiae, B. henselae [241, 279, 280]
Sri Lanka 5.1 PCR: 3.38 Bartonella strain HMD [281]
Thailand 38 PCR: 1.8; Culture and PCR: 0.3–31.3 B. clarridgeiae, B. elizabethae, B. grahamii, B. quintana, B. taylorii, B. vinsonii arupensis [40, 282,283,284]
Vietnam 0 PCR: 0 nf [281]
Australia New South Wales and Northern Territory 0 Culture and PCR: 0 nf [285]
North America Centre 0–20 nf nf [69, 286]
East 0–49 PCR: 9.2; Culture: 52.5 B. bovis, B. henselae, B. koehlerae, B. vinsonii berkhoffiii, B. volans-like [68, 69, 128, 286]
West 0–29 PCR: 0–1.7; Culture: 2.2 B. clarridgeiae-like, B. vinsonii berkhoffii [69, 286,287,288]
South America Argentina nf PCR: 3 B. clarridgeiae [260]
Brazil 1.5–24.8 PCR and culture: 1 B. henselae, B. vinsonii berkhoffii [262, 264, 281, 289]
Chile nf PCR: 4.3 B. henselae, B. vinsonii berkhoffii [290]
Colombia 10.1 PCR: 0.77 B. rochalimae, B. vinsonii berkhoffii [281]
Galapagos Islands nf PCR: 13.6 B. clarridgeiae, B. elizabethae, B. henselae [267]
Peru 40–62 PCR: 10 B. rochalimae, B. vinsonii berkhoffii type III [291]
  1. Abbreviations: PCR polymerase chain reaction, nf not found