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Table 7 Treatment decision based on culture, PCR and serology results in sick animals with suspected Bartonella infection [16, 59, 62, 104, 112, 128]

From: Bartonella infections in cats and dogs including zoonotic aspects

Diagnostic methods Bartonella infectiona Treatment decisions options
Culture PCR Serology
+ + + Confirmed Treat
+ + - Confirmed Treat
+ - - Confirmed Treat
+ - + Confirmed Treat
- + + Confirmed Treat
- + - Confirmed Treat
- - + Bartonellosis not excluded; Repeat culture and PCR if the suspicion of clinical bartonellosis remains Do not treat or treat empirically if disease progresses. Empirical treatment should not be routinely recommended
- - - Bartonellosis not excluded; Repeat serology in 2–3 weeks or culture and PCR in a few days if the suspicion of clinical bartonellosis remains Do not treat or treat empirically if disease progresses. Empirical treatment should not be routinely recommended
  1. aDespite diagnostic confirmation of bartonellosis in cats and dogs, as listed in the table, vector-borne disease co-infections, co-morbidities and other differential diagnoses should be evaluated in conjunction with or prior to administration of antimicrobial drugs
  2. Key: +, positive; -, negative