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Table 3 Pathogen co-infections in ticks collected from dogs in multiple cities in Russia

From: Dog survey in Russian veterinary hospitals: tick identification and molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens

Species Location No. tested (F/M/N/L)a Type of co-infection No. (%) ticks infected 95% CI
Ixodes persulcatus Artem 13 (6/-/1/ 6) B.g. + B.a.: 1 (7.7) 0.2–36.0
Ekaterinburg 19 (17/-/2/-) B.g. + B.a.: 1 (5.3) 0.1–26.0
Irkutsk 59 (53/6/-/-) B.g. + B.v. + A.ph.; B.g. + E.m.; B.d. + E.m.: 1 (1.7) 0.9–9.1
B.g.+ B.a.: 2 (3.4) 0.4–11.7
Khabarovsk 9 (9/-/-/-) B.g.+ A.ph.: 1 (11.1) 0.3–48.2
Kirov 50 (38/9/3/-) B.a. + E.m.; B.a. + B.mic.; B.a. + A.ph.: 1 (2.0) 0.1–10.6
B.g. + B.a.: 3 (6.0) 1.3–16.5
Krasnoyarsk 30 (28/-/2/-) B.g. + B.a.: 1 (3.3) 0.1–17.2
Perm 6 (6/-/-/-) B.g. + B.a.; B.g. + E.m.: 1 (16.7) 0–64.1
Vladivostok 14 (11/3/-/-) B.a. + A.ph.; B.g. + B.m.: 1 (7.1) 0.2–33.9
Vologda 32 (27/2/3/-) B.g.+ B.a.: 3 (9.4) 2.0–2.5
B.a. + E.m.; B.g. + B.a. + E.m.; B.g. + B.a. + B.mic.: 1 (3.1) 0.1–16.0
Ixodes ricinus Moscow 70 (67/2/1/-) B.m. + A.m.; B.a. + B.c. + A.m.: 1 (1.4) 0–7.7
St Petersburg 14 (14/-/-/-) B.g.+ B.m.: 1 (7.1) 0.2–33.9
Total   316 (276/22/12/6)   
  1. aF, females; M, males; N, nymphs, L, larvae
  2. Abbreviations: A.ph., Anaplasma phagocytophilum; A.m., A. marginale; E.m., Ehrlichia muris; B.m., Borrelia miyamotoi; B.a., B. afzelii; B.g., B. garinii; B.mic., Babesia microti; B.c., B. canis; B.v., B. venatorum; B.d., B. divergens