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Table 2 Protective efficacy of personal protection methods compared to short untreated clothing for the dominant mosquito species Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, and putative malaria vectors

From: Field evaluation of personal protection methods against outdoor-biting mosquitoes in Lao PDR

Dominant species Clothing and treatment Total no. collected Average collections per collection day (95% CI) Protective efficacy (95% CI) P
Ae. albopictus (afternoon) Short permethrin-treated 627 22.4 (14.0–30.8) 14.6 (-8.1–32.6) 0.190
Long permethrin-treated 275 9.8 (6.2–13.5) 54.0 (39.7–64.9) <0.001*
Short untreated + repellent 329 11.8 (7.6–15.9) 46.1 (27.9–59.7) <0.001*
Short permethrin-treated + repellent 226 8.1 (5.0–11.1) 61.6 (45.5–73.0) <0.001*
Short untreated + coil 60 2.1 (0.9–3.4) 91.7 (87.2–94.6) <0.001*
Long untreated 657 23.5 (15.0–31.9) 4.4 (-23.3–25.9) 0.728
Short untreated 672 24.0 (16.4–31.6)   
Cx. vishnui (s.l.) (evening) Short permethrin-treated 1004 17.9 (13.3–22.5) 12.0 (-19.8–35.3) 0.417
Long permethrin-treated 681 12.1 (7.9–16.4) 42.8 (21.6–58.3) 0.001*
Short untreated + repellent 876 15.6 (10.6–20.7) 22.5 (4.6–37.1) 0.016*
Short permethrin-treated + repellent 586 10.5 (6.5–14.5) 54.3 (34.6–68.1) <0.001*
Short untreated + coil 410 7.3 (3.1–11.5) 70.9 (39.0–86.1) 0.001*
Long untreated 1045 18.7 (13.2–24.1) 6.5 (-21.4–27.9) 0.615
Short untreated 1135 20.3 (15.2–25.4) 1  
Putative malaria vectorsa (evening) Short permethrin-treated 44 0.8 (0.4–1.1) -12.5 (-89.6–33.2) 0.658
Long permethrin-treated 33 0.6 (0.3–0.9) 23.2 (-13.9–48.3) 0.189
Short untreated + repellent 55 1.0 (0.4–1.6) -27.3 (-116.8–25.2) 0.374
Short permethrin-treated + repellent 28 0.5 (0.3–0.7) 29.3 (-11.6–55.1) 0.137
Short untreated + coil 32 0.6 (0.3–0.9) 20.2 (-38.8–54.1) 0.425
Long untreated 42 0.8 (0.4–1.1) -6.0 (-57.3–28.6) 0.773
Short untreated 39 0.7 (0.4–1.0) 1  
  1. Notes: Results are shown using generalized estimating equations and 95% confidence interval (CI). Afternoon collections were undertaken from 12:00 to 18:00 h in the secondary forest of Silalek village. The evening collections were undertaken from 17:00 to 23:00 h at the primary school of Thinkeo village
  2. aPutative malaria mosquitoes An. barbumbrosus (s.l.), An. barbirostris (s.l.), An. dirus (s.l.), An. maculatus (s.l.) and An. minimus (s.l.)
  3. *P < 0.05