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Table 1 Trematode species in which division of labour (reproduction versus defence) has been demonstrated and/or inferred

From: Evolution, phylogenetic distribution and functional ecology of division of labour in trematodes

Family Species Snail host Location Evidence Reference
Himasthlidae Himasthla sp. B Cerithidea californica California M, B [6]
Himasthla rhigedana C. californica California M, B [14]
Himasthla elongata Littorina littorea Denmark M, B [10]
Acanthoparyphium spinulosum C. californica California M, B [14]
Acanthoparyphium sp. I Batillaria attramentaria Japan M, B [13]
Acanthoparyphium sp. Zeacumantus subcarinatus New Zealand M C. Lagrue (unpubl. data)
Philophthalmidae Philophthalmus sp. Zeacumantus subcarinatus New Zealand M, B [7]
Cloacitrema michiganensis C. californica California M, B [14]
Parorchis acanthus C. californica California M, B [14]
Philophthalmid sp. I B. attramentaria Japan M, B [13]
Philophthalmid sp. II B. attramentaria Japan M, B [13]
Heterophyidae Euhaplorchis californiensis C. californica California M, B [15]
Phocitremoides ovale C. californica California M [15]
Pygidiopsoides spindalis C. californica California M [15]
Strictodora hancocki C. californica California M, B [15]
  1. Abbreviations: M morphological characterisation of two distinct castes, B behavioural demonstration of greater defensive role of small soldiers