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Table 1 Direct and indirect methods of detection for vector-borne infections initiated in imported dogs

From: Retrospective evaluation of vector-borne infections in dogs imported from the Mediterranean region and southeastern Europe (2007–2015)

Infectious agent Test LMU Munich Laboklin
Ehrlichia canis PCR Applied Biosystems TaqMan© Real Time PCR [71] TaqMan© Real Time PCR (in-house test)
Ab-IFAT MegaScreen© FLUOEHRLICHIA canis (MegaCor Diagnostik GmbH, Hörbranz, Austria; ≥ 1:40 positive) MegaFLUO© EHRLICHIA canis (MegaCor Diagnostik GmbH, Hörbranz, Austria; ≥ 1:80 positive)
Anaplasma platys PCR Applied Biosystems TaqMan© Real Time PCR [72]a TaqMan© Real Time PCR (in-house test)
Leishmania infantum PCR Applied Biosystems TaqMan© Real Time PCR [73] TaqMan© Real Time PCR [74]
Ab-IFAT Leishmania infantum MON-1 [75]; ≥ 1:64 positive MegaFLUO© LEISH (MegaCor Diagnostik GmbH, Hörbranz, Austria; › 1:64 positive)
Ab-ELISA - Civtest© Canis Leishmania (Hipra, Amer, Spain; › 1,1 LE positive)
Babesia spp. PCRb PCR (18S rRNA) with gel electrophoresis [76]c PCR (18S rRNA) with gel electrophoresis [77]d
Babesia canis e Ab-IFAT MegaScreen© FLUOBABESIA canis (MegaCor GmbH, Hörbranz, Austria; ≥ 1:64 positive) MegaFLUO© BABESIA canis (MegaCor GmbH, Hörbranz, Austria; ≥ 1:40 positive)
Ab-ELISA Babesia ELISA Dog (Afosa, Blankenfelde-Mahlow, Germany; 19 TE positive)
Babesia gibsoni Ab-IFAT MegaScreen© FLUOBABESIA gibsoni-Testkit (MegaCor GmbH, Hörbranz, Austria; ≥ 1:64 positive) MegaFLUO© BABESIA gibsoni (MegaCor GmbH, Hörbranz, Austria; ≥ 1:32 positive)
Babesia spp./Hepatozoon spp. PCRb In-house protocol
Hepatozoon canis PCR PCR (18S rRNA) with gel electrophoresis [78]f TaqMan© Real Time PCR (in-house test)
Dirofilaria spp. Knottʼs test Modified Knottʼs test [79] Modified Knottʼs test [79]
Microfilariae PCR PCR (IST-2) with gel electrophoresis [80]c TaqMan© Real Time PCR (in-house test)f
Dirofilaria immitis Ag-ELISA Dirochek© Canine Heartworm Antigen Test Kit (Synbiotics Corporation, San Diego, California 92127, US Veterinary License No. 312; Megacor) FASTest© HW Antigen (MegaCor GmbH, Hörbranz, Austria)
  1. aIn combination with A. phagocytophilum PCR due to sequence homology
  2. bDifferentiation between different species possible by request of veterinarian
  3. cSpecies differentiation after sequencing of the PCR product and comparison with the database GenBank (NCBI Blast Search)
  4. dSequencing of the PCR-product by request of the veterinarian
  5. eSerological cross-reactions between B. canis und B. vogeli possible
  6. f18S rRNA, 2012–2015 (2007–2012 no data available)
  7. Abbreviations: LMU Munich, Institute for Experimental Parasitology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany; Laboklin, Laboklin, Bad Kissingen, Germany; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; Ag-ELISA, antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay; Ab-IFAT, immunofluorescence antibody test; Ab-ELISA, antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay