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Table 2 Univariate analysis of study cohort variables based on Leishmania serostatus. Pearson’s chi-square test and ANOVA were used to analyze categorical variables where appropriate

From: Comorbid infections induce progression of visceral leishmaniasis

Variable Leishmania+
(n = 108)
Leishmania-
(n = 115)
P-value
Sex, n (% male) 54 (24.2) 61 (27.6) 0.6886
Age, mean ± SD (range) (years) 2.45 ± 1.81 (0.42–8.00) 2.50 ± 2.45 (0.25–13.0)  
Breed, n (% mixed breed) 11 (5.29) 9 (4.33) 0.6392
Appearance, n (%)
 Onychogryphosis 21 (19.4) 19 (16.5) 0.3691
 Cachexia 8 (7.41) 11 (9.57)
 Physical wounds 9 (8.33) 9 (7.83)
 Apathy 0 (0) 4 (3.48)
 None 81 (75) 90 (78.3)
Tick disease exposure, n (%)
Ehrlichia alone 88 (81.5) 76 (66.1) 0.0290
Anaplasma alone 39 (36.1) 35 (30.4)
Anaplasma + Ehrlichia 39 (36.1) 34 (29.6)
 None 20 (18.5) 38 (33.0)
  1. Notes: Age differences assessed via Mann-Whitney test. Leishmania+ are dogs that tested positive via the DPP®CVL assay. Leishmania- are dogs that tested negative via the DPP®CVL assay
  2. Abbreviation: SD standard deviation