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Table 3 Dogs seropositive for a tick-borne disease are more likely to be seropositive for Leishmania. Parameter estimates were determined using logistic regression

From: Comorbid infections induce progression of visceral leishmaniasis

Variable ARR 95% CI P-valuea
(i) Leish serology 1 test
Sex
Male vs female 0.97 0.74–1.28 0.85
Age 0.97 0.91–1.04 0.38
Appearance
 Onychogryphosis 1.22 0.84–1.76 0.29
 Cachexia 0.99 0.54–1.80 0.97
 Physical wounds 1.11 0.71–1.74 0.63
Apathy 0.35 0.60–2.05 0.24
Tick disease serostatus
 positive for 1 vs 0 1.60 1.04–2.45 0.032
 positive for 2 vs 0 1.68 1.09–2.61 0.019
 positive for 1 vs 2 0.95 0.70–1.29 0.73
Breed
Mixed vs Purebred 0.99 0.63–1.54 0.95
(ii) Leish serology 2 tests
Sex
Male vs female 0.56 0.26–1.20 0.14
Tick disease serostatus
 positive for 1 vs 0 4.86 1.16–20.3 0.030
 positive for 2 vs 0 2.75 0.60–12.7 0.19
 positive for 1 vs 2 1.76 0.77–4.05 0.18
  1. aBold indicates statistically significant variables
  2. Notes: Leishmaniosis 1 test: Leishmania-positive are dogs that tested positive via DPP®CVL assay or ELISA. Leishmania-negative are dogs that tested negative via the DPP®CVL assay and ELISA. Predictor variables for this model included age, sex, appearance, tick disease status, and breed. Leishmaniosis 2 tests: Leishmania-positive are dogs that tested positive via the DPP®CVL assay and ELISA. Leishmania-negative are dogs that tested negative via the DPP®CVL assay and ELISA. Predictor variables for this model included sex and tick disease serostatus
  3. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, ARR adjusted relative risk