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Table 2 Summary of urine metabolite, permethrin retention and tick and mosquito knockdown/mortality results among 13 participants

From: Bioabsorption and effectiveness of long-lasting permethrin-treated uniforms over three months among North Carolina outdoor workers

Control/participant ID Permethrin equivalent daily dose (μg/kg/day). Multi-month averagea Clothing type Mean ± SD permethrin content in μg/cm2b Mean tick mortality (%)c Mean Ae. albopictus knockdown (2 h) and mortality (24 h) (%)d Mean Ae. aegypti knockdown (2 h) and mortality (24 h) (%)d
3-PBA cis-DCCA trans-DCCA 2 h 24 h 2 h 24 h
Untreated controls Pants 0.0 ± 0.0 3 0 0 0 0
Socks 3.5 ± 0.2 7 0 0 0 0
Treated controls Pants 14.2 ± 1.6 100 11 0 0 0
Socks 48.5 ± 0.2 100 15 0 0 0
NC01 3.24 2.99 3.98 Pants 10.2 ± 1.5 100 12 0 0 0
Socks 24.7 ± 13.8 97 0 0 0 0
NC02 1.72 1.14 2.66 Pants 4.9 ± 0.3 90 0 0 0 0
Socks 13.9 ± 0.8 97 10 10 0 0
NC03 0.75 0.37 0.97 Pants 3.1 ± 0.4 17 7 7 0 8
Socks 5.5 ± 1.2 97 0 0 0 0
NC04 1.88 0.67 2.34
NC05 0.54 0.26 0.64 Pants 41.8 ± 2.3 100 100 20 13 13
Socks 68.5 ± 5.6 100 0 0 0 0
NC06 7.12 4.64 9.66 Pants 27.6 ± 7.6 97 20 7 0 0
Socks 24.8 ± 0.7 40 0 0 0 0
NC07 0.33 0.19 0.40 Pants 3.4 ± 0.3 47 0 0 7 0
Socks 89.1 ± 42.4 100 25 0 0 0
NC08 0.86 0.39 1.03
NC09 0.32 0.12 0.36
NC10 2.10 1.14 2.54
NC11 Pants 13.0 ± 1.5 87 0 0 0 0
Socks
NC12 0.79 0.51 1.08 Pants 20.3 ± 1.1 100 33 0 0 0
Socks 54.7 ± 15.8 97 0 0 0 0
NC13 1.29 1.40 2.08 Pants 20.2 ± 2.0 100 89 0 11 0
Socks 53.7 ± 3.7 97 0 0 0 0
  1. aThree urine metabolites were tested: 3-PBA: 3-Phenoxybenzoic acid; cis-DCCA: Cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid; and trans-DCCA: Trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid
  2. bMean permethrin content was calculated as the mean of either three pants swatches tested from the same pair of pants or two sock swatches tested (one from each sock in a pair)
  3. cMean tick mortality indicates the mean percentage of ticks assessed as dead from visual inspection at 24 h. The mean was determined from either the three pants swatches tested or the two sock swatches tested
  4. dMean mosquito knockdown/mortality indicates the mean percentage of mosquitoes assessed as knocked down at 2 h and dead at 24 h. The mean was determined from either the three pants swatches tested or the two sock swatches tested