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Table 1 Epidemiological variables recorded in 114 Bml-infected healthy dogs (PCR and sequencing confirmed)

From: The role of healthy dog carriers of Babesia microti-like piroplasms

Variable n Positive Bml (%) χ2-value df P-value
Dog population Hunting dog 333 85 (25.5)* 57.429 2 ≤0.0001
Pet 212 5 (2.4)
Stray dog 211 24 (11.4)
Study area A Coruña 285 99 (34.7)* 139,734 3 ≤0.0001
Lugo 165 6 (3.6)
Ourense 136 0
Pontevedra 170 9 (5.3)
Breed Crossbreed 371 63 (17) 2016 1 0.156
Pure breed 377 50 (13.3)
Age (years) < 3 202 27 (13.4) 0.885 2 0.642
3–5 248 41 (16.5)
>5 264 41 (15.5)    
Size (kg) ≤5 27 5 (18.5) 23.876 3 ≤0.0001
>5 ≤ 10 110 25 (22.7)*
> 10 ≤ 25 333 61(18.3)*
≥25 228 13 (5.7)    
Sex Non-neutered male 255 54 (21.2)* 9.871 3 0.02
Neutered male 66 5 (7.6)
Non-sterilized female 235 40 (17)
Sterilized female 78 8 (10.3)
Habitat House with garden 142 1 (0.7) 66.180 4 ≤0.0001
Flat 62 3 (4.8)
Kennel 316 85 (26.9)*
Farm 21 1 (4.8)
Shelter 211 24 (11.4)    
Fox-hunting Yes 140 44 (31.4)* 10.974 1 0.001
No 152 23 (15.1)
Ticks Yes 42 10 (23.8) 1.988 1 0.165
No 607 95 (15.7)
Ectoparasiticides Yes 601 99 (16.5) 0.231 1 0.631
No 75 14 (18.7)
Clinical signsa Presence 92 7 (7.6) 4.709 1 0.03
Absence 657 107 (16.3)*
Body condition Thin 93 26 (28)* 20.767 2 ≤0.0001
Normal 463 83 (17.9)
Overweight 85 2 (2.4)
  1. * Significant differences observed
  2. aSome clinical signs observed but not suggestive of acute canine piroplasmosis