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Table 1 Prevalence of Leishmania (molecular and/or serological) and antibodies to Phlebotomus perniciosus saliva in cats from three regions of mainland Portugal

From: Antibody response to Phlebotomus perniciosus saliva in cats naturally exposed to phlebotomine sand flies is positively associated with Leishmania infection

Variable/categories Tested cats Antibodies to P. perniciosus saliva Antibodies to Leishmania and/or parasite DNA
Positive cats 95% CI P-value Positive cats 95% CI P-value
Sex, n (%) 349    0.111 (χ2 = 2.535, df = 1)    0.468 (χ2 = 0.526, df = 1)
 Female 191 (54.7) 84 (44.0) 37.1–51.1   16 (8.4) 5.2–13.2  
 Male 158 (45.3) 83 (52.5) 44.8–60.2   10 (6.3) 3.5–11.3  
Age, median (IQR) 36 (12–96) 72 (24–121)   <0.001 (Z = -6.379) 28 (8–96)   0.301 (Z = -1.034)
Age group, n (%) 310    <0.001 (χ2 = 38.335, df = 3)    1.866 (χ2 = 1.866, df = 3)
 2–11 months 70 (22.6) 16 (22.9)a,b 14.6–34.0   7 (10.0) 4.9–19.2  
 12–35 months 67 (21.6) 25 (37.3)c 26.7–49.3   6 (9.0) 4.2–18.2  
 36–95 months 85 (27.4) 39 (45.9)a,d 35.7–56.4   4 (4.7) 1.8–11.5  
 More than 95 months 88 (28.4) 62 (70.5)b,c,d 60.2–79.0   6 (6.8) 3.2–14.1  
Reproductive status, n (%) 334    <0.001 (χ2 = 47.881, df = 1)    0.693 (χ2 = 0.156, df = 1)
 Entire 216 (64.7) 72 (33.3) 27.4–39.9   14 (6.5) 3.9–10.6  
 Neutered 118 (35.3) 86 (72.9) 64.2–80.1   9 (7.6) 4.1–13.9  
Breed, n (%) 347    0.811 (χ2 = 0.057 df = 1)    0.635f
 Defined 18 (5.2) 9 (50.0) 29.0–71.0   2 (11.1) 3.1–32.8  
 Mongrel 329 (94.8) 155 (47.1) 41.8–52.5   24 (7.3) 5.0–10.6  
Fur length, n (%) 349    0.013 (χ2 = 6.229, df = 1)    0.191f
 Short 310 (88.8) 141 (45.5) 40.0–51.0   21 (6.8) 4.5–10.1  
 Medium or long 39 (11.2) 26 (66.7) 51.0–79.4   5 (12.8) 5.6–26.7  
Lifestyle, n (%) 346    <0.001 (χ2 = 31.806, df = 1)    0.522 (χ2 = 0.411, df = 1)
 Domestic 145 (41.9) 95 (65.5) 57.5–72.8   12 (8.3) 4.8–13.9  
 Shelter/stray 201 (58.1) 70 (34.8) 28.6–41.6   13 (6.5) 3.8–10.8  
Region, n (%) 350    0.001 (χ2 = 14.246, df = 2)    0.467f
 Centre 61 (17.4) 41 (67.2)e 54.7–77.7   5 (8.2) 3.6–17.8  
 Lisbon metropolitan area 266 (76.0) 112 (42.1)e 36.3–48.1   18 (6.8) 5.6–26.7  
 Algarve 23 (6.6) 14 (60.9) 40.8–77.8   3 (13.0) 4.5–32.1  
Other animals, n (%) 343    0.149 (χ2 = 2.082, df = 1)    0.197f
 No 39 (11.4) 23 (59.0) 43.4–72.9   5 (12.8) 5.6–26.7  
 Yes 304 (88.6) 142 (46.7) 41.2–52.3   21 (6.9) 4.6–10.3  
Ectoparasiticides, n (%) 332    <0.001 (χ2 = 20.516, df = 1)    0.147 (χ2 = 2.101, df = 1)
 No 257 (77.4) 102 (39.7) 33.9–45.8   15 (5.8) 3.6–9.4  
 Yes 75 (22.6) 52 (69.3) 58.2–78.6   8 (10.7) 5.5–19.7  
Clinical signs, n (%) 350    0.137 (χ2 = 2.212, df = 1    0.899 (χ2 = 0.899, df = 1)
 No 252 (72.0) 114 (45.2) 39.2–51.4   19 (7.5) 4.9–11.5  
 Yes 98 (28.0) 53 (54.1) 44.3–63.6   7 (7.1) 3.5–14.0  
Concomitant diseases, n (%) 181    0.185 (χ2 = 1.760, df = 1)    0.384 (χ2 = 0.759, df = 1)
 No 99 (54.7) 62 (62.6) 52.8–71.5   11 (11.1) 6.3–18.8  
 Yes 82 (45.3) 59 (72.0) 61.4–80.5   6 (7.3) 3.4–15.1  
Phlebotomine activity period, n (%) 350    <0.001 (χ2 = 102.048, df = 1)    0.156 (χ2 = 2.016, df = 1)
 No 168 (48.0) 33 (19.6) 14.3–26.3   9 (5.4) 2.8–9.9  
 Yes 182 (52.0) 134 (73.6) 66.8–79.5 0.398 (χ2 = 5.148, df = 5) 17 (9.3) 5.9–14.5 0.653 (χ2 = 3.308, df = 5)
  May 25 (7.1) 20 (80.0) 60.9–91.1   3 (12.0) 2.5–31.2  
  June 20 (5.7) 14 (70.0) 48.1–85.5   1 (5.0) 0.9–23.6  
  July 22 (6.3) 20 (90.9) 72.2–97.5   2 (9.1) 2.5–27.8  
  August 18 (5.1) 13 (72.2) 49.1–87.5   0 (0.0) 0.0–17.6  
  September 24 (6.9) 17 (70.8) 50.8–85.1   2 (8.3) 2.3–25.9  
  October 73 (20.9) 50 (68.5) 57.1–78.0   9 (12.3) 6.6–21.8  
Total, n (%) 350 167 (47.7) 42.5–52.9   26 (7.4) 5.1–10.7  
  1. aP = 0.003 (χ2 = 8.832, df = 1)
  2. bP < 0.001 (χ2 = 35.110, df = 1)
  3. cP < 0.001 (χ2 = 16.860, df = 1)
  4. dP = 0.001 (χ2 = 10.680, df = 1)
  5. eP < 0.001 (χ2 = 12.530, df = 1)
  6. fFisher’s exact test or Freeman-Halton test
  7. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; IQR, interquartile interval (quartile 1 - quartile 3)