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Table 2 Presence of antibodies against Phlebotomus perniciosus saliva: odds-ratios, 95% confidence intervals and significances, obtained by simple (OR crude) and multiple (OR adjusted) logistic regression models

From: Antibody response to Phlebotomus perniciosus saliva in cats naturally exposed to phlebotomine sand flies is positively associated with Leishmania infection

Variable/categories OR crude 95% CI P-value OR adjusted 95% CI P-value
Sexb
 Femalea       
 Male 1.41 0.92–2.15 0.112 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 2.528, df = 1)    
Age group
 2–11 monthsa    <0.001 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 35.190, df = 3)    <0.001 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 29.553, df = 3)
 12–35 months 2.01 0.95–4.24 0.067 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 3.360, df = 1) 3.56 1.39–9.16 0.008 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 6.953, df = 1)
 36–95 months 2.86 1.42–5.78 0.003 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 8.608, df = 1) 9.43 3.62–24.48 <0.001 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 21.224, df = 1)
 More than 95 months 8.05 3.91–16.56 <0.001 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 32.070, df = 1) 9.68 3.92–23.91 <0.001 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 24.222, df = 1)
Reproductive statusb
 Entirea       
 Neutered 5.38 3.28–8.82 <0.001 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 44.393, df = 1)    
Breedb
 Defineda       
 Mongrel 0.89 0.35–2.30 0.811 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 0.057, df = 1)    
Fur lengthb
 Shorta       
 Medium or long 2.40 1.19–4.84 0.015 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 5.953, df = 1)    
Lifestyleb
 Domestica       
 Shelter/stray 0.28 0.180–0.44 <0.001 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 30.684, df = 1)    
Regionb
 Centrea    0.001 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 13.693, df = 2)    
 Lisbon metropolitan area 0.36 0.20–0.64 0.001 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 11.957, df = 1)    
 Algarve 0.76 0.28–2.05 0.586 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 0.297, df = 1)    
Other animalsb
 Noa       
 Yes 0.61 0.31–1.20 0.152 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 2.053, df = 1)    
Ectoparasiticidesb
 Noa       
 Yes 3.44 1.98–5.96 <0.001 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 19.290, df = 1)    
Clinical signsb
 Noa       
 Yes 1.43 0.89–2.28 0.138 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 2.203, df = 1)    
Concomitant diseasesb
 Noa       
 Yes 1.53 0.82–2.88 0.186 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 1.751, df = 1)    
Phlebotomine activity periodb
 Noa       
 Yes 11.42 6.90–18.90 <0.001 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 89.858, df = 1) 19.44 9.84–38.41 <0.001 (\(\chi^{ 2}_{\text{Wald}}\) = 72.947, df = 1)
  1. aReference category
  2. bVariable that did not have a statistically significant association in the fitted model
  3. Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval