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Table 2 Species list of Culicoides recorded in Mayotte, with systematic affiliations, published bionomics and current known distribution (review based on [49, 50])

From: Culicoides Latreille in the sun: faunistic inventory of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Mayotte (Comoros Archipelago, Indian Ocean)

Species Systematic affiliation following Borkent’s catalogue Systematic affiliation following [49] Bionomics Known distribution
C. accraensis Carter, Ingram & Macfie, 1920 Subgenus Synhelea No subgenus affiliation known, Accraensis Group Breeds primarily in tree holes, although there are several records from other habitat types. The host-feeding preference of C. accraensis is probably large mammals based on the low number of antennal sensilla. In Nigeria, adults were most numerous in the forest zone near livestock pens; abundance in relation to rainy season in Senegal. Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Uganda, Zimbabwe
C. albopunctatus Clastrier, 1960 Subgenus Synhelea No subgenus affiliation known, Accraensis Group Tree-hole breeder species. In South Africa, rarely collected species and usually with low abundance. Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, South Africa, Tanzania
C. bolitinos Meiswinkel, 1989 Subgenus Avaritia Subgenus Avaritia Widespread distribution in South Africa. This species is described as breeding in the dung of cattle and buffaloes. In Zimbabwe, the species is abundant in regions characterized by low rainfall and high environmental temperatures, although in South Africa C. bolitinos has been reported to be more abundant in the cooler mountainous regions. Botswana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria, Reunion, Senegal, South Africa, Zimbabwe
C. dekeyseri Clastrier, 1958 No subgenus affiliation known, Dekeyseri Group No subgenus affiliation known, Dekeyseri Group Not a common species in South Africa but apparently widespread in Nigeria in both forest and savanna areas. Angola, Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda
C. distinctipennis Austen, 1912 Subgenus Meijerehelea Subgenus Meijerehelea Widespread and common in Nigeria. Recorded as primarily a bird-feeder but also collected feeding on humans in Zaire and Senegal. Breeding sites described as moist soil and mud taken from boggy ground, edges of pools or lakes, puddles and streams. Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Egypt, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sao Tome, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe
C. enderleini Cornet & Brunhes, 1994 Subgenus Remmia Subgenus Remmia Widespread and common species. Ethiopia, Gambia, Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Reunion Island, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe
C. imicola Kieffer, 1913 Subgenus Avaritia Subgenus Avaritia Very widely distributed and common species. Can be extremely abundant under ideal conditions. Historically recognized as the Afrotropical vector species of AHS and BT viruses. Algeria, Angola, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Morocco, Nigeria, Reunion, Sao Tome, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe
C. kibatiensis Goetghebuer, 1935 Subgenus Avaritia Subgenus Avaritia Widespread and common species. Kenya, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Uganda
C. leucostictus Kieffer, 1911 Subgenus Meijerehelea Subgenus Meijerehelea Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Nigeria, Sao Tome, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe
C. milnei Austen, 1909 Milnei Group No subgenus affiliation known, Milnei Group In South Africa, rarely collected species while widespread in the eastern part. Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda
C. moreli Clastrier, 1959 Milnei Group No subgenus affiliation known, Milnei Group Regularly collected in high numbers from KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa while rare elsewhere in the country. Gambia, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Uganda
C. nevilli Cornet & Brunhes, 1994 Subgenus Remmia Subgenus Remmia Widespread and common species in South Africa. Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Zimbabwe
C. rhizophorensis Khamala & Kettle, 1971 Subgenus Remmia Subgenus Remmia Rare species, collected along the eastern and southern coastal area near swampy and saline areas in South Africa. Comoros Islands, Madagascar, Kenya, South Africa
C. similis Carter, Ingram & Macfie, 1920 Subgenus Synhelea No subgenus affiliation known, Similis Group Widespread and common in the Afrotropical region, abundant in Senegal during the dry season, breeding sites in mud from the edges of temporary pools, puddles or ponds, and rotting banana stems or other vegetation Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Zimbabwe
C. subschultzei Cornet & Brunhes, 1994 Subgenus Remmia Subgenus Remmia Widespread and common species. Could be locally abundant. Ethiopia, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa, Zimbabwe
C. trifasciellus Goetghebuer, 1935 Subgenus Avaritia Subgenus Avaritia In Kenya, species collected from high altitude forest and grass-land and reported as major human biting species. Reported primarily as diurnal with peaks in morning hours and in the late evening. Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, South Africa