Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Characterization of Anopheles spp. larval habitats in the Korhogo area in the rainy and the dry seasons

From: Identification and characterization of Anopheles spp. breeding habitats in the Korhogo area in northern Côte d’Ivoire: a study prior to a Bti-based larviciding intervention

Characteristics Category No. (%) of breeding habitats for Anopheles spp. mosquitoes Mean no. of Anopheles spp. larvae/350 ml Mean no. of mosquito pupae/350 ml
Rainy season Dry season Rainy season Dry season Rainy season Dry season
Habitat type Dam 0 (0) 15 (7.98) 13.87 0
Agricultural trench 2 (0.32) 0 (0) 7.50 0 2.50 0
Basin of water 1 (0.16) 0 (0) 0 0 0 0
Cesspool 1 (0.16) 0 (0) 0 0 1.00 0
Edges of rivers and streams 76 (12.26) 4 (2.13) 7.09 3.25 0.18 0
Animal/human footprints 49 (7.90) 9 (4.79) 7.00 3.67 0.18 0
Irrigation canals and drains 47 (7.58) 3 (1.60) 11.15 17.67 0.26 0
Pond 8 (1.29) 0 (0) 19.63 0 0 0
Puddle 51 (8.23) 50 (26.60) 11.75 12.26 0.47 0.20
Rice paddy 380 (61.29) 107 (56.91) 7.67 8.40 0.41 0.26
Troughs attached to village pumps 1 (0.16) 0 (0) 2.00 0 0 0
Village pumps 4 (0.65) 0 (0) 6.75 0 0.25 0
Total 620 (100) 188 (100) 8.00 10.00 0 0
Size (m2) < 1 461 (74.35) 130 (69.15) 8.57 8.53 0.42 0.20
1–10 83 (13.39) 40 (21.28) 8.31 12.90 0.07 0.05
> 10 76 (12.26) 18 (9.57) 6.37 10.78 0.29 0.56
Water turbidity Transparent 397 (64.03) 118 (62.77) 6.51 9.15 0.10 0.22
Turbid 215 (34.68) 69 (36.70) 11.27 10.58 0.85 0.17
Very turbid 8 (1.29) 1 (0.53) 14.75 9.00 0 0
Distance from houses < 100 m 26 (4.19) 6 (3.19) 8.46 1.67 1.23 0
100–500 m 148 (23.87) 61 (32.45) 9.96 7.54 0.99 0.21
> 500 m 446 (71.94) 121 (64.36) 7.70 11.15 0.09 0.21
Sunlight exposure Sunny 593 (95.65) 188 (100) 8.45 9.68 0.35 0.20
Shaded 27 (4.35) 0 (0) 4.19 0 0.44 0.00
Partly shaded 0 (0) 0 (0)
General surroundings High-density housing 17 (2.74) 2 (1.06) 4.76 0.50 1.41 0
Low-density housing 10 (1.61) 12 (6.38) 24.80 3.17 0.80 0.17
Green areas 593 (95.65) 174 (92.55) 8.00 10.23 0 0.21
Culex spp. larvae Present 172 (27.74) 96 (51.06) 7.60 8.05 0.90 0.26
Absent 448 (72.26) 92 (48.94) 8.52 11.37 0.15 0.14
Aedes spp. larvae Present 0 (0) 5 (2.66) 9.8 0
Absent 620 (100) 183 (97.34) 8.27 9.67 0.35 0.21
Other insects Present 421 (67.90) 152 (80.85) 8.02 10.97 0.17 0.19
Absent 199 (32.10) 36 (19.15) 8.79 4.19 0.74 0.25
Fish Present 34 (5.48) 1 (0.53) 8.85 12.00 0.47 0
Absent 586 (94.52) 187 (99.47) 8.23 9.66 0.35 0.20
Tadpoles Present 32 (5.16) 16 (8.51) 10.16 11.31 0.44 0
Absent 588 (94.84) 172 (91.49) 8.16 9.52 0.35 0.22
Crop Rice 380 (61.29) 107 (56.91) 7.67 8.40 0.41 0.26
Vegetable gardens 95 (15.32) 52 (27.66) 10.63 13.92 0.20 0.15
Other 80 (12.90) 586 (15.43) 12.00 8.00 0.32 0.32
Water movement Flowing 26 (4.19) 3 (1.59) 8.81 3.33 1.27 0
Stagnant 594 (95.81) 185 (98.40) 8.24 9.78 0.31 0.21
Solid waste Absent 460 (74.19) 21 (11.17) 8.84 10.81 0.46 0.48
Present 160 (25.81) 167 (88.83) 6.63 9.53 0.06 0.17
Liquid waste Absent 593 (95.65) 155 (82.45) 8.32 10.61 0.34 0.21
Present 27 (4.35) 33 (17.55) 7.22 5.30 0.63 0.18
Vegetation Absent 21 (3.38) 11 (5.85) 10.00 3.55 0.38 0.09
Present 599 (96.61) 177 (94.15) 8.21 10.06 0.35 0.21