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Fig. 1 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 1

From: Dauer signalling pathway model for Haemonchus contortus

Fig. 1

Dauer signalling pathway model proposed for Haemonchus contortus. The cGMP (red), TGF-β (orange), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (green) and steroid hormone (light blue) signalling pathways are constructed based on information and data available for C. elegans. Pathway components not identified in H. contortus are indicated in grey. It is hypothesized that environmental signals are received by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) through cGMP signalling in chemosensory neurons, transduced via TGF-β and insulin-like peptides in parallel TGF-β signalling and IGF-1 signalling, which then converge into the steroid hormone signalling pathway via the biosynthesis of dafachronic acids (DAs; ligands of nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12) in neuroendocrine tissues, determining the activation of DAF-12 in target (hypodermal) cells. The activation of DAF-12 initiates or regulates numerous molecular events such as transcription. Signalling or regulation is indicated by an arrow or cross-line. Phosphorylation events detected in the third larval stage (L3) of H. contortus are indicated by a phosphate group (yellow). Dashed arrows indicate pathways which need to be further elucidated. Drawing is adapted or modified from previous publications [24, 39, 45, 62]

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