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Table 3 Associations between STH infection and concurrent virus, bacteria, protozoa infection, and number of microparasite infections, Saravane Province, Laos, 2017 (n = 746)

From: Associations between soil-transmitted helminthiasis and viral, bacterial, and protozoal enteroinfections: a cross-sectional study in rural Laos

  Virusa* Bacteriab* Protozoac* No. of microparasite infections
Any STHd 0.48 (0.28, 0.83) 1.81 (1.06, 3.07) 1.50 (0.95,2.37) 0.11 (0.01, 0.21)
Hookworme 0.70 (0.40, 1.21) 1.22 (0.70, 2.12) 1.78 (1.11, 2.84) 0.09 (0.00, 0.19)
A. lumbricoides 0.66 (0.23, 1.87) 1.02 (0.35, 2.96) 1.42 (0.59, 3.41) 0.01 (−0.16, 0.18)
T. trichiura 0.53 (0.22, 1.29) 5.97 (2.05, 17.4) 1.79 (0.84, 3.80) 0.18 (0.03, 0.33)
S. stercoralis 0.52 (0.29, 0.95) 1.32 (0.69, 2.53) 1.30 (0.78, 2.17) 0.08 (−0.02, 0.18)
  1. aVirus includes one or more of the following pathogens: astrovirus, adenovirus, norovirus GI, norovirus GII, rotavirus, or sapovirus
  2. bBacteria includes one or more of the following pathogens: Aeromonas, C. difficile, C. jejuni, EAEC, EHEC, EPEC (typical or atypical), LT- or ST-ETEC, Shigella spp. enteroinvasive E. coli, or Salmonella
  3. cProtozoa includes one or more of the following pathogens: non-hominus and non-parvum Cryptosporidium spp., C. hominus, C. parvum, E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis
  4. dAny soil-transmitted helminth (STH) includes one or more of the following helminths: hookworm (N. americanus and/or A. duodenale), A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, or S. stercoralis
  5. eHookworm includes N. americanus and/or A. duodenale
  6. * Results are adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals and are interpreted as the change in odds of virus/bacteria/protozoa infection among subjects with STH (or specific STH species) infection compared to those without
  7. Results are beta coefficients and 95% confidence intervals and are interpreted as the change in number of microparasite infections among subjects with STH (or specific STH species) infection compared to those without
  8. Notes: All models control for population group, sex, socioeconomic status, ethnic minority status, household population size, presence of an improved toilet in household, use of an improved household drinking water source, presence of soap for handwashing at household, household animal ownership, and whether the village school was a beneficiary of the UNICEF WASH in Schools intervention, and include random intercepts at the village and household level