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Table 1 Distribution of Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in crab-eating macaques in Hainan, China by fecal consistency, sex and age

From: Genotypes and public health potential of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis in crab-eating macaques

Specimen Sample size Giardia duodenalis a Enterocytozoon bieneusi
No. positive (%) Genotype (n) No. positive (%) Genotype (n)
Loose stoolsb 365 150 (41.1) B (150) 151 (41.4) Type IV (74)
CM1 (40)
Pongo2 (12)
Peru8 (11)
CM2 (8)
Peru11 (4)
PigEbITS7 (1)
D (1)
Normal stools 1087 319 (29.3) B (319) 310 (28.5) Type IV (162)
CM1 (79)
Peru8 (31)
Pongo2 (15)
CM2 (9)
Peru11 (8)
CM3 (3)
D (3)
Malec 706 236 (33.4) B (236) 258 (36.5) Type IV (134)
CM1 (56)
Peru8 (23)
Pongo2 (18)
CM2 (11)
Peru11 (10)
D (3)
CM3 (2)
PigEbITS7 (1)
Female 599 181 (30.2) B (181) 160 (26.7) Type IV (78)
CM1 (53)
Peru8 (14)
Pongo2 (9)
CM2 (5)
D (1)
Unknown 147 52 (35.4) B (52) 43 (29.3) Type IV (24)
CM1 (10)
Peru8 (5)
Peru11 (2)
CM2 (1)
CM3 (1)
1–3 years-oldd 1102 403 (36.6) B (403) 326 (29.6) Type IV (160)
CM1 (95)
Peru8 (25)
Pongo2 (17)
CM2 (14)
Peru11 (7)
D (4)
CM3 (3)
PigEbITS7 (1)
> 3 years-old 350 66 (18.9) B (66) 135 (38.6) Type IV (76)
CM1 (24)
Peru8 (17)
Pongo2 (10)
Peru11 (5)
CM2 (3)
Total 1452 469 (32.3) B (469) 461 (31.7) Type IV (236)
CM1 (119)
Peru8 (42)
Pongo2 (27)
CM2 (17)
Peru11 (12)
D (4)
CM3 (3)
PigEbITS7 (1)
  1. aGiardia duodenalis detection rates were based on PCR analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and β-giardin (bg) genes
  2. bDetection rates of G. duodenalis (χ2 = 17.25, P < 0.0001) and E. bieneusi (χ2 = 20.83, P < 0.0001) are significantly higher in animals with loose stools than in those with normal stools
  3. cThe detection rate of E. bieneusi is significant higher in males than in females (χ2 = 14.391, P = 0.0001)
  4. dThe detection rate of G. duodenalis is significantly higher in 1–3 year-old animals than in older animals (χ2 = 38.11, P < 0.0001). In contrast, the detection rate of E. bieneusi is significantly lower in 1–3 year-old animals than > 3 years (χ2 = 9.90, P = 0.0016)