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Fig. 1 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 1

From: Contribution of tissue transglutaminase to the severity of hepatic fibrosis resulting from Schistosoma japonicum infection through the regulation of IL-33/ST2 expression

Fig. 1

The level of tTG and IL-33/ST2 is consistent with the severity of hepatic fibrosis post Sj infection.C57BL/6 mice were infected with 20 ± 3 cercariae of Sj for 0, 5, 6 and 8 weeks. Hepatic tissue sections were fixed and stained with Sirius red, or anti-IL-33 and anti-ST2 primary antibody. (a, left) A typical Sirius red staining (200×, scale-bar: 50 μm) of Sj single egg granuloma is shown. (a, right) Percentage of morphometric collagen areas around Sj single egg (stained with positive red) was calculated and shown (t-test, ****P < 0.0001). b The relative RNA expression levels of tTG, IL-33 and ST2 in liver tissue of mice infected with Sj at indicated time courses were measured by RT-qPCR. GAPDH expression levels were taken for reference (t-test, ***P = 0.0001, ****P < 0.0001). c The protein expression level of tTG, IL-33 and ST2 in mice liver homogenates detected by Western blotting are displayed on the left panel, and semi-quantitative analysis is shown on the right panel. GAPDH was used as a loading control. d The typical protein expression levels and location of IL-33 and ST2 in mice liver tissue were determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) assay at weeks 5, 6 and 8 after Sj infection were shown (200× and 400×, left, scale-bar: 50 μm), and the semi-quantitative analysis of these proteins was analyzed using a modified H score (right) [t-test; ****P < 0.0001, ***P = 0.0004, ns, no significance, P = 0.9228 (upper panel), P = 0.1711 (lower panel)]. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM from 3–6 mice per group. All in vitro experiments were performed twice or thrice. Eggs are indicated by red arrows

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