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Table 1 Number and (%) of manual and analytical evaluation of various parameters

From: Evaluation of the Clinitek®, a point-of-care urinalysis system for the measurement of clinically significant urinary metabolites and detection of haematuria in Schistosoma haematobium infected children in southern Côte d’Ivoire

Parameter Descriptive Numeric Rank Visual read (out of N = 300) CLINITEK (out of N = 300)
Leukocytes (Leu/µl) neg/normal 0 0 139 (46.3) 102 (34.0)
trace 15 1 38 (12.7) 73 (24.3)
+ 70 2 39 (13.0) 73 (24.3)
++ 125 3 68 (22.7) 25 (8.3)
+++ 500 4 14 (4.7) 23 (7.7)
   nd 2 (0.7) 4 (1.3)
Nitritesa,b neg/normal na 0 272 (90.7) 263 (87.7)
positive na 2 28 (9.3) 35 (11.7)
   nd 0 (0) 2 (0.7)
Urobilinogena (E.U./dl; mmol/l) neg/normal 0.2,1; 3.2, 16 0 292 (97.3) 280 (93.3)
+ 2; 33 2 5 (1.7) 9 (3.0)
++ 4; 66 3 2 (0.7) 6 (2.0)
+++ ≥ 131; 8 4 1 (0.3) 2 (0.7)
   nd 0 (0) 3 (1.0)
Proteins (g/l; mg/dl) neg/normal 0 0 154 (51.3) 96 (32.0)
trace 0.2; trace 1 59 (19.7) 31 (10.3)
+ 0.3; 30 2 50 (16.7) 69 (23.0)
++ 1; 100 3 29 (9.7) 76 (25.3)
+++ ≥ 3; 300 4 8 (2.7) 26 (8.7)
   nd 0 (0) 2 (0.7)
Blood (Eur/µl) neg/normal 0 0 107 (35.7) 111 (37.0)
trace 10 1 38 (12.7) 40 (13.3)
+ 25 2 14 (4.7) 18 (6.0)
++ 80 3 45 (15.0) 51 (17.0)
+++ 200 4 95 (31.7) 80 (26.7)
   nd 1 (0.3) 0 (0)
Ketone bodies (mg/dl) neg/normal 0 0 278 (92.7) 264 (88.0)
trace 5 1 20 (6.7) 33 (11.0)
+ 15 2 1 (0.3) 2 (0.7)
++ 40 3 0 (0) 0 (0)
+++ 80 4 0 (0) 0 (0)
++++ 160 5 0 (0) 0 (0)
   nd 1 (0.3) 0 (0)
Bilirubina neg/normal na 0 220 (73.3) 220 (73.3)
+ na 2 51 (17.0) 74 (24.7)
++ na 3 25 (8.3) 5 (1.7)
+++ na 4 3 (1.0) 1 (0.3)
   nd 1 (0.3) 0 (0)
Glucosec (g/dl; mg/dl) neg 0 0 299 (99.7) 297 (99.0)
+ 0.25; 250 2 0 (0) 3 (1.0)
   nd 1 (0.3) 0 (0)
  1. Key: na, not applicable; nd, no data; +, small; ++, moderate; +++, large; ++++, very large
  2. aOne or both read-outs don’t offer a trace (rank 1) read, only negative or gradients of positive
  3. bDipsticks offer gradients of positive readout (+, ++, +++) but machine reads only negative or positive
  4. cFull glucose read-out gradients not shown as almost all children were negative except for 3 small positives