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Table 2 Agreement between analytical vs. manual evaluation of various parameters on the Multistix PRO urine dipstick tests

From: Evaluation of the Clinitek®, a point-of-care urinalysis system for the measurement of clinically significant urinary metabolites and detection of haematuria in Schistosoma haematobium infected children in southern Côte d’Ivoire

Parameter Light infection Heavy infection Combined
kappa SE Z kappa SE Z kappa SE Z
Leukocytes (LEU) 0.64 0.06 12.02 0.49d 0.15 3.74 0.63 0.06 13.33
Nitrites (NIT)a 0.87 0.05 13.43 nc nc nc 0.88 0.05 14.78
Urobilinogen (URO) 0.57 0.20 6.83 0.74 0.32 4.52 0.60 0.18 8.66
Proteins (PROT) 0.38 0.07 4.64 0.48e 0.14 2.92 0.44 0.06 6.25
Blood (BLO) 0.79 0.04 15.64 0.81 0.12 7.35 0.82 0.03 17.59
BLO yes/no onlyb 0.81 0.04 12.71 1.00 0.00 7.21 0.83 0.03 14.41
Ketone bodies (KET) 0.30c 0.18 2.77 0.39f 0.28 1.74 0.32 0.15 4.65
Bilirubin (BIL) 0.32 0.12 5.08 0.61 0.19 5.28 0.38 0.10 7.15
Glucose (GLU) nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc
  1. Note: P-values for all parameters measured were lower than 0.0001 except where noted
  2. aUnweighted kappa statistic was applied, as the parameter is binary
  3. bCollapsed amount of blood measure to just positive or negative for haematuria
  4. cP = 0.0056
  5. dP = 0.0002
  6. eP = 0.0035
  7. fP = 0.0825
  8. Abbreviation: nc, not calculable, due to lack of values in one measuring technique