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Fig. 2 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 2

From: The antioxidants resveratrol and N-acetylcysteine enhance anthelmintic activity of praziquantel and artesunate against Schistosoma mansoni

Fig. 2

Morphological alterations manifested by schistosomula of S. mansoni following exposure to anthelmintic drugs and RESV and their combinations. Newly transformed schistosomula were exposed for 72 h to PZQ, AS, RESV, PZQ + RESV and AS + RESV in a dose ratio of 1:1 at highest concentration (100 μM) and compared to controls. Generally, NTS showed dark granularity and alterations in shape that were more pronounced after exposure to combinations of anthelmintics and antioxidants that to anthelmintics or antioxidants alone. PZQ induced a round/oval shaped phenotype and severely disrupted morphology. Although RESV induced some morphological alterations, the tegmental integrity of NTS larvae remained intact (red arrow). PZQ + RESV induced not only severe granularity but also blebbing (black arrows). With AS + RESV, NTS showed membrane disruption (white arrow) followed by death. Images were captured using a BioTek LionHeart FX Automated Live Cell microscope (magnification of 20×)

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