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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies, control measures included and results pre/post-intervention

From: Integration of schistosomiasis control activities within the primary health care system: a critical review

Author and year Country and duration of the intervention Schistosoma species Control measures Population targeted Results pre/post-intervention Classification group Intervention effect
Landouré et al. (2003) [25] Mali, 1 year (1986–1987), evaluation of integration 10 years later S. haematobium; S. mansoni Diagnosis and treatmenta; health educationb and community mobilisation General population Knowledge of symptoms and treatment: S. haematobium: -/80%; S. mansoni: -/69%
Praziquantel available, but some shortages in some health centres
Cost for praziquantel relatively high
One +
Sow et al. (2003) [26] Ndombo village, Northern Senegal, 7 years (1994–2000) S. mansoni Diagnosis and treatmenta; health informationb; health educationb on health-seeking General population Knowledge: symptoms: 0%/54.2%; mode of transmission: 0%/43.5%; both combined: 0%/29.5%
Health care seeking behaviour at health centre: 0%/ 92%
One ±
van der Werf et al. (2002) [27] Saint Louis Region, Northern Senegal, 4 years (1995–1999) S. mansoni Diagnosis and treatmenta; health educationb at the community level General population Knowledge of symptoms and treatment: S. haematobium: -/100%; S. mansoni: -/94%
Praziquantel available
Cost of praziquantel relatively cheap
One +
Ageel & Amin (1997) [28] Gizan Region, Saudi Arabia, 5 years (1990–1996) S. haematobium Diagnosis and treatmenta; snail controlc; health educationb of the population General population Community participation
Improved coverage in diagnosis and treatment: 60% (1990)/90% (1996)
Overall prevalence: 1.2% (1990)/0.3% (1996)
Two +
al Moagel et al. (1990) [29] Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia, 5 years (1984–1988) S. haematobium; S. mansoni Diagnosis and treatmenta; molluscicidingc; health educationb General population Improved coverage in diagnosis and treatment: 10688 cases (1984)/106579 cases (1988); overall prevalence: 9.3% (1984)/0.6% (1988) Two +
Brinkman et al. (1988) [30] Office du Niger irrigation zones and the district of Bandiagara, Mali, 1 year (1986–1987) S. haematobium; S. mansoni Diagnosis and treatmenta; health educationb of population; molluscicidingc General population Prevalence < 20% in villages targeted by the intervention: S. haematobium: 8.1% (1986)/46% (1987); S. mansoni: 36.7% (1986)/53% (1987)
Prevalence of intensive infections < 5% in villages targeted by the intervention: S. haematobium: 23% (1986)/72% (1987); S. mansoni: 36% (1986)/50% (1987)
Two +
Jarallah et al. (1993) [31] Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 3 years (1984–1986) S. haematobium; S. mansoni Diagnosis and treatmenta; snail controlc; health educationb of the population General population Overall prevalence: 13.2% (1983)/0.2% (1989)
Prevalence of S. mansoni: 12.3% (1983)/0.1% (1989)
Prevalence of S. haematobium: 0.9% (1983)/0.05% (1989)
Prevalence in Saudians: 91.1% (1983)/32.6% (1989)
Prevalence in non-Saudians: 8.9% (1983) /67.4% (1989)
Dropout rate of patients under treatment: 54.4% (1987)/22.1% (1989)
Two +
Coura et al. (1992) [32] Peri-Peri, Brazil, 3 years (1984–1987) S. haematobium; S. mansoni Diagnosis and treatmenta; basic health educationb; basic sanitation; malacologicalc control General population Improved coverage in diagnosis and treatment: 81.7% (1984)/91.8% (1987)
Prevalence: 15.2% (1984)/4.4% (1987) (P = 0.01)
Incidence: 10.9% (1984)/2.9% (1987) (P = 0.002)
Cure rate: children: 72% (1984)/88% (1987); adults: 83.3% (1984)/94% (1987)
Three +
Ali et al. (1989) [33] Ngamyland, Botswana, 3 years (1985–1987) S. mansoni Diagnosis and treatmenta; snail controlc; health educationb and community awareness; water supplyd; improved sanitationd General population Community participation
Overall prevalence: ≤ 10% (survey in school children)/3.3% (survey in school children)
Successful reduction in prevalence of S. mansoni infection in general population
Infection intensity (> 100 eggs per gram): 5.4% (for the first survey)/0.5% (for the third survey)
Three +
Engels et al. (1993) [34] Bugesera, Bujumbura, Imbo-Sud, and Rusizi plain, Burundi, 3 years (1989–1992) S. haematobium; S. mansoni Diagnosis and treatmenta; health educationb of school children and patients; snail controlc; safe water supplyd; construction of latrinesd General population Improved coverage in diagnosis and treatment
Rusizi plain: 970 cases (1988)/3584 cases (1991)
Bugesera: 63 cases (1988)/180 cases (1991)
Sustainability and affordability for the national health budget of the integration
Three +
Engels et al. (1995) [35] Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cibitoke, Kirundo, Makamba, Burundi, 3 years (1989–1994) S. mansoni Diagnosis and treatmenta; health educationb of school children and patients; snail controlc; safe water supplyd; construction of latrinesd General population Apparent recovery of an integrated control programme in the primary health care, after civil unrest
Sustainability of a schistosomiasis control programme which is integrated in the primary health care
Three +
  1. Key: +, positive; ±, low impact
  2. aDiagnosis and treatment: integrated into routine care after training of the staff in charge of consultations and referrals. Within this control measure, the targeted population was the general population accessing health care facilities
  3. bHealth education: performed by staff in charge of consultations, referrals and in charge of hygiene and sanitation. The target population was patients, school children and the general population
  4. cSnail control: integrated into routine activities after training of the staff in charge of hygiene and sanitation at the health centre. The target was water bodies in schistosomiasis endemic areas
  5. dClean water supply and sanitation: the integration in the routine activities implies that the staff in charge of hygiene an sanitation is always involved in the identification of hygiene and sanitation issues, in households within the health centre’s area of responsibility, and in the management of those which can be solved at their level. Otherwise, they must report identified and unsolvable problems to the administration, which had to find solutions. All control measures implied provision of necessary resources (drugs, laboratory tests, equipment and supply) and training of health care staff for the implementation of the needed activities