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Table 4 Association of knowledge of women about schistosomiasis with their age and religion

From: Knowledge, perceptions and practices regarding schistosomiasis among women living in a highly endemic rural district in Zimbabwe: implications on infections among preschool-aged children

Variable Age (years) Religion
< 30
n (%)
≥ 30
n (%)
OR 95% CI Non-apostolic
n (%)
Apostolic
n (%)
OR 95% CI
Knowledge of bilharzia
 Woman thinks she is currently infected 61 (31.1) 61 (30.1) 1.0 0.6–1.5 20 (32.3) 102 (30.3) 0.9 0.5–1.6
What are the signs and symptoms of bilharzia infection?a
 Haematuria 138 (70.4) 155 (76.4) 1.4 0.9–2.1 45 (72.6) 248 (73.6) 1.1 0.6–1.9
 Weight loss 46 (23.5) 52 (25.6) 1.1 0.7–1.8 9 (14.5) 89 (26.4) 2.1 1.0–4.5**
 Dysuria 19 (9.7) 20 (9.9) 1.0 0.5–2.0 7 (11.3) 32 (9.5) 0.8 0.3–2.0
 Abdominal pain 9 (4.6) 17 (8.4) 1.9 0.8–4.4 3 (4.8) 23 (6.8) 1.4 0.4–5.0
 Genital itchiness in women 2 (1.0) 6 (3.0) 2.9 0.6–14.7 1 (1.6) 7 (2.1) 1.3 0.2–10.7
 I don’t know 8 (4.1) 7 (3.5) 0.8 0.3–2.4 1 (1.6) 14 (4.2) 2.6 0.3–20.5
What are the complications of untreated chronic bilharzia infection?a
 Infertility 72 (36.7) 98 (48.3) 1.6 1.1–2.4* 20 (32.3) 150 (44.5) 1.7 0.9–3.0
 Mental disturbance 21 (10.7) 33 (16.3) 1.6 0.9–2.9 10 (16.1) 44 (13.1) 0.8 0.4–1.6
 Death 14 (7.1) 17 (8.4) 1.2 0.6–2.5 9 (14.5) 22 (6.5) 0.4 0.2–0.9*
 I don’t know 8 (4.1) 8 (3.9) 1.0 0.4–2.6 5 (8.1) 11 (3.3) 0.4 0.1–1.1
What are the prevention and control methods of bilharzia?a
 Taking anti-schistosomal medicines 55 (28.1) 48 (23.7) 0.8 0.5–1.2 13 (21.0) 90 (26.7) 1.4 0.7–2.7
 Avoiding use of unprotected water bodies 86 (43.9) 91 (44.8) 1.0 0.7–1.5 35 (56.5) 142 (42.1) 0.6 0.3–1.0*
 Health education 19 (9.7) 17 (8.4) 0.8 0.4–1.7 4 (6.5) 32 (9.5) 1.5 0.5–4.5
 Provision of WASH facilities 29 (14.8) 33 (16.3) 1.1 0.7–1.9 11 (18.0) 51 (15.1) 0.8 0.4–1.7
Risky perceptionsa
 School-aged children most likely infected 149 (76.0) 158 (77.8) 1.1 0.7–1.8 45 (72.6) 262 (77.7) 1.3 0.7–2.4
 Children aged ≤ 5 years most likely infected 102 (52.0) 97 (47.8) 0.8 0.6–1.2 35 (56.5) 164 (48.7) 0.7 0.4–1.3
 Adult women most likely infected 33 (16.8) 46 (22.7) 1.4 0.9–2.4 10 (16.1) 69 (20.5) 1.3 0.6–2.8
 Adult men most likely infected 20 (10.2) 34 (16.8) 1.8 1.0–3.2** 5 (8.1) 49 (14.5) 1.9 0.7–5.1
Practicesa
 Use unsafe water for domestic purposesb 29 (13.7) 30 (14.0) 1.0 0.6–1.8 8 (12.7) 51 (14.1) 1.1 0.5–2.5
 Use unsafe water for laundryb 179 (84.4) 174 (81.3) 1.2 0.8–2.1 52 (82.5) 301 (82.9) 1.0 0.5–2.0
 Bath in unsafe waterb 84 (39.6) 85 (39.7) 1.0 0.7–1.5 35 (55.6) 134 (36.9) 2.1 1.2–3.7*
Allow PSAC to play in unsafe water while they are bathing 118 (55.7) 127 (59.4) 0.9 0.6–1.3 38 (60.3) 207 (57.0) 1.1 0.7–2.0
 Bath PSAC using boiled water 198 (93.4) 198 (92.5) 0.9 0.4–1.8 58 (92.1) 338 (93.1) 1.2 0.4–3.2
 Allow PSAC to help water the garden 56 (26.4) 68 (31.8) 1.3 0.9–2.0 24 (38.1) 100 (27.6) 0.6 0.4–1.1
 Have a toilet at home 170 (80.2) 173 (80.8) 1.0 0.6–1.7 57 (90.5) 286 (78.8) 0.4 0.2–0.9*
 Use of a toilet for excreta disposal 180 (84.9) 182 (85.1) 1.0 0.6–1.7 60 (95.2) 302 (83.2) 0.2 0.1–0.8*
 Discussion of bilharzia at home 176 (89.8) 198 (97.5) 4.5 1.7–12.2* 58 (93.6) 316 (93.8) 1.0 0.3–3.1
  1. aMultiple responses were considered
  2. bThose who rely solely on unsafe water for the indicated water contact activities
  3. * Significant association (P < 0.05); ** Borderline significance (P = 0.05)
  4. Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; PSAC, preschool-aged children; WASH, water, sanitation and hygiene