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Table 5 Association of knowledge, perceptions and practices of the women regarding schistosomiasis with their education and employment status (n = 426)

From: Knowledge, perceptions and practices regarding schistosomiasis among women living in a highly endemic rural district in Zimbabwe: implications on infections among preschool-aged children

Variable Education Employment
Not educated
n (%)
Educated
n (%)
OR 95% CI Not employed
n (%)
Employed
n (%)
OR 95% CI
Knowledge of bilharzia
 Woman thinks she is currently infected 52 (31.9) 70 (29.6) 0.9 0.6–1.4 103 (32.3) 19 (23.8) 0.7 0.4–1.2
What are the signs and symptoms of bilharzia infection?a
 Haematuria 110 (67.5) 183 (77.5) 1.7 1.1–2.6* 231 (72.4) 62 (77.5) 1.3 0.7–2.3
 Weight loss 54 (33.1) 44 (18.6) 0.5 0.3–0.7* 76 (23.8) 22 (27.5) 1.2 0.7–2.1
 Dysuria 14 (8.6) 25 (10.6) 1.3 0.6–2.5 35 (11.0) 4 (5.0) 0.4 0.1–1.2
 Abdominal pain 11 (6.8) 15 (6.4) 0.9 0.4–2.1 22 (6.9) 4 (5.0) 0.7 0.2–2.1
 Genital itchiness in women 5 (3.1) 3 (1.3) 0.4 0.1–1.7 7 (2.2) 1 (1.3) 0.6 0.1–4.6
 I don’t know 2 (1.2) 13 (5.5) 4.7 1.0–21.1* 15 (4.7) 0 (0)
What are the complications of untreated chronic bilharzia infection?a
 Infertility 61 (37.4) 109 (46.2) 1.4 1.0–2.2 131 (41.1) 39 (48.8) 1.4 0.8–2.2
 Mental disturbance 22 (13.5) 32 (13.6) 1.0 0.6–1.8 48 (15.1) 6 (7.5) 0.5 0.2–1.1
 Death 11 (6.8) 20 (8.5) 1.3 0.6–2.7 27 (8.5) 4 (5.0) 0.6 0.2–1.7
 I don’t know 5 (3.1) 11 (4.7) 1.5 0.5–4.5 16 (5.0) 0 (0)
What are the prevention and control methods of bilharzia?a
 Taking anti-schistosomal medicines 47 (28.8) 56 (23.7) 0.8 0.5–1.2 70 (21.9) 33 (41.3) 2.5 1.5–4.2*
 Avoiding use of unprotected water bodies 73 (44.8) 104 (44.1) 1.0 0.7–1.5 147 (46.1) 30 (37.5) 0.7 0.4–1.2
 Health education 14 (8.6) 22 (9.4) 1.1 0.5–2.2 34 (10.7) 2 (2.5) 0.2 0.1–0.9*
 Provision of WASH facilities 24 (14.7) 38 (16.2) 1.1 0.6–1.9 54 (16.9) 8 (10.1) 0.6 0.3–1.2
Risky perceptionsa
 School-aged children most likely infected 124 (76.1) 183 (77.5) 1.1 0.7–1.7 238 (74.6) 69 (86.3) 2.1 1.1–4.2*
 Children aged ≤ 5 years most likely infected 78 (47.9) 121 (51.3) 1.1 0.8–1.7 152 (47.7) 47 (58.8) 1.6 1.0–2.6
 Adult women most likely infected 23 (14.1) 56 (23.7) 1.9 1.1–3.2* 62 (19.4) 17 (21.3) 1.1 0.6–2.0
 Adult men most likely infected 13 (8.0) 41 (17.4) 2.4 1.3–4.7* 43 (13.5) 11 (13.8) 1.0 0.5–2.1
Practicesa
 Use unsafe water for domestic purposesb 32 (18.0) 27 (10.9) 0.6 0.3–1.0* 48 (14.0) 11 (13.1) 0.9 0.5– 1.9
 Use unsafe water for laundryb 151 (84.8) 202 (81.5) 1.3 0.8–2.1 284 (83.0) 69 (82.1) 1.1 0.6–2.0
 Bath in unsafe waterb 70 (39.3) 99 (39.9) 1.0 0.7–1.4 139 (40.6) 30 (35.7) 1.2 0.8–2.0
 Allow PSAC to play in unsafe water while they are bathing 99 (55.6) 146 (58.9) 0.9 0.6–1.3 208 (60.8) 37 (44.1) 2.0 1.2–3.2*
 Bath PSAC using boiled water 171 (96.1) 225 (90.7) 0.4 0.2–1.0* 315 (92.1) 81 (96.4) 2.3 0.7–7.8
 Allow PSAC to help water the garden 50 (28.1) 74 (29.8) 1.1 0.7–1.7 101 (29.5) 23 (27.4) 0.9 0.5–1.5
 Have a toilet at home 142 (79.8) 201 (81.1) 1.1 0.7–1.8 272 (79.5) 71 (84.5) 1.4 0.7–2.7
 Use of a toilet for excreta disposal 148 (83.2) 214 (86.3) 1.3 0.7–2.2 290 (84.8) 72 (85.7) 1.1 0.5–2.1
 Discussion of bilharzia at home 154 (94.5) 220 (93.2) 0.8 0.3–1.9 299 (93.7) 75 (93.8) 1.0 0.4–2.8
  1. aMultiple responses were considered
  2. bThose who rely solely on unsafe water for the indicated water contact activities
  3. * Significant association of P < 0.05; ** Borderline significance P = 0.05
  4. Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; PSAC, preschool-aged children; WASH, water, sanitation and hygiene