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Table 6 Association of knowledge, perceptions and practices of women regarding schistosomiasis with their community of residence

From: Knowledge, perceptions and practices regarding schistosomiasis among women living in a highly endemic rural district in Zimbabwe: implications on infections among preschool-aged children

Variable Community
Chihuri Kaziro Mupfure Nduna
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Knowledge of bilharzia
 Caregiver thinks she is currently infected 1.5 0.8–3.1 1.2 0.6–2.7 2.4 1.3–4.5* 0.7 0.3–1.9
What are the signs and symptoms of bilharzia infection?a
 Haematuria 0.8 0.4–1.5 0.9 0.5–1.9 3.7 1.8–7.4* 1.0 0.4–2.1
 Weight loss 0.3 0.1–0.5* 0.2 0.1–0.4* 0.3 0.1–0.5* 0.6 0.3–1.3
 Dysuria 8.2 1.8–37.3* 7.2 1.5–34.8* 3.0 0.6–14.4 5.9 1.1–31.6*
 Abdominal pain 6.4 0.8–54.2 1.4 0.1–22.9 6.9 0.9–54.6 20.8 2.5–172.6*
 Genital itchiness in women 0.7 0.1–3.7 0.3 0.0–1.8
 I don’t know 0.4 0.1–1.8 0.4 0.1–1.6 0.6 0.1–3.1
What are the complications of untreated chronic bilharzia infection?a
 Infertility 1.2 0.6–2.1 0.2 0.1–0.4* 0.4 0.3–0.8* 0.2 0.1–0.5*
 Mental disturbance 0.3 0.1–0.8* 0.8 0.3–2.0 0.7 0.3–1.5 1.2 0.4–3.0
 Death 0.4 0.1–1.6 0.8 0.2–2.8 1.5 0.6–3.9 0.3 0.0–2.4
 I don’t know 1.0 0.2–5.1 3 0.7–12.5 0.9 0.2–3.9
What are the prevention and control methods of bilharzia?a
 Taking anti-schistosomal medicines 0.1 0.1–0.3* 0.3 0.2–0.6* 0.2 0.1–0.3* 0.3 0.1–0.7*
 Avoiding use of unprotected water bodies 1.2 0.6–2.1 1.0 0.5–1.9 1.3 0.7–2.2 0.6 0.3–1.4
 Health education 3.6 1.1–11.6* 4.0 1.2–13.3* 1.3 0.4–4.4 0.5 0.1–4.7
 Provision of WASH facilities 1.8 0.7–4.9 3.3 1.2–8.8* 2.1 0.8–5.1 2.7 0.9–8.1
Risky perceptionsa
 School-aged children most likely infected 0.6 0.2–1.9 0.1 0.0–0.3* 0.2 0.1–0.6* 0.1 0.0–0.2*
 Children aged ≤ 5 years most likely infected 0.3 0.1–0.6* 3.6 1.8–7.5* 2.0 1.1–3.4* 1.1 0.5–2.3
 Adult women most likely infected 0.2 0.0–0.6* 1.5 0.7–3.4 2.0 1.0–3.9* 0.2 0.0–1.0**
 Adult men most likely infected 0.2 0.1–0.9* 0.7 0.3–2.1 2.1 1.0–4.3 0.5 0.1–2.0
Practicesa
 Use unsafe water for domestic purposesb 2.1 0.8–5.2 0.8 0.2–2.3 2.6 1.1–5.9* 1.0 0.3–3.4
 Use unsafe water for laundryb 0.6 0.3–1.4 1.4 0.7–3.0 0.7 0.3–1.3 0.2 0.0–0.8*
 Bath in unsafe waterb 0.5 0.3–1.0* 0.4 0.2–0.8* 0.3 0.2–0.6 0.2 0.1–0.5*
 Allow PSAC to play in unsafe water while they are bathing 0.4 0.2–0.8* 0.9 0.5–1.8 0.5 0.3–0.8 1.5 0.7–3.0
 Bath PSAC using boiled water 1.7 0.6–4.8 1.4 0.5–3.5 3.1 0.6–15.6
 Allow PSAC to help water the garden 2.9 1.5–5.5* 1.5 0.7–3.0 1.4 0.8–2.7 0.3 0.1–1.0**
 Have a toilet at home 1.5 0.7–3.5 1.5 0.6–3.8 0.7 0.4–1.4 0.4 0.2–0.9*
 Use of a toilet for excreta disposal 1.9 0.6–5.8 0.8 0.3–2.2 0.5 0.2–1.0 0.2 0.1–0.6*
 Discussion of bilharzia at home 2.1 0.4–11.5 0.4 0.1–1.4 0.8 0.2–2.3 0.6 0.1–2.9
  1. Note: Chakondora community was considered as the reference group
  2. aMultiple responses were considered
  3. bThose who rely solely on unsafe water for the indicated water contact activities
  4. * Significant association of P < 0.05; ** Borderline significance P = 0.05
  5. Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; PSAC, preschool-aged children; WASH, water, sanitation and hygiene