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Table 7 Association of knowledge, perceptions and practices of women regarding schistosomiasis with their history of schistosomiasis infection

From: Knowledge, perceptions and practices regarding schistosomiasis among women living in a highly endemic rural district in Zimbabwe: implications on infections among preschool-aged children

Variable Have been infected before
Yes
n (%)
No
n (%)
OR 95% CI
Knowledge of bilharzia
 Woman thinks she is currently infected 89 (43.4) 33 (17.0) 3.7 2.4–6.0*
What are the signs and symptoms of bilharzia infection?a
 Haematuria 155 (75.6) 138 (71.1) 1.3 0.8–2.0
 Weight loss 56 (27.3) 42 (21.7) 1.4 0.9–2.2
 Dysuria 22 (10.7) 17 (8.8) 1.3 0.6–2.4
 Abdominal pain 13 (6.3) 13 (6.7) 0.9 0.4–2.1
 Genital itchiness in women 6 (2.9) 2 (1.0) 2.9 0.6–14.6
 I don’t know 6 (2.9) 9 (4.6) 0.6 0.2–1.8
What are the complications of untreated chronic bilharzia infection?a
 Infertility 89 (43.4) 81 (41.8) 1.1 0.8–1.6
 Mental disturbance 36 (17.6) 18 (9.3) 2.1 1.1–3.8*
 Death 10 (4.9) 21 (10.8) 0.4 0.2–0.9*
 I don’t know 7 (3.4) 9 (4.6) 0.7 0.3–2.0
What are the prevention and control methods of bilharzia?a
 Taking anti-schistosomal medicines 58 (28.3) 45 (23.2) 1.3 0.8–2.1
 Avoiding use of unprotected water bodies 93 (45.3) 84 (43.3) 1.1 0.7–1.6
 Health education 15 (7.3) 21 (10.9) 0.6 0.3–1.3
 Provision of WASH facilities 26 (12.7) 36 (18.7) 0.6 0.4–1.1
Risky perceptionsa
 School-aged children most likely infected 148 (72.2) 159 (82.0) 0.6 0.4–0.9*
 Children aged ≤ 5 years most likely infected 100 (48.8) 99 (51.0) 0.9 0.6–1.4
 Adult women most likely infected 43 (21.0) 36 (18.6) 1.2 0.7–1.9
 Adult men most likely infected 33 (16.1) 21 (10.8) 1.6 0.9–2.8
Practicesa
 Use unsafe water for domestic purposesb 35 (17.1) 21 (10.8) 1.7 1.0–3.0
 Use unsafe water for laundryb 178 (86.8) 154 (79.4) 0.6 0.3–1.0*
 Bath in unsafe waterb 94 (45.9) 68 (35.1) 0.6 0.4–1.0*
 Allow PSAC to play in unsafe water while they are bathing 133 (64.9) 98 (50.5) 0.6 0.4–0.8*
 Bath PSAC using boiled water 189 (92.0) 181 (93.3) 0.8 0.4–1.8
 Allow PSAC to help water the garden 75 (36.6) 45 (23.2) 1.9 1.2–3.0*
 Have a toilet at home 164 (80.0) 159 (82.0) 0.9 0.5–1.5
 Use of a toilet for excreta disposal 170 (82.9) 170 (87.6) 0.7 0.4–1.2
 Discussion of bilharzia at home 196 (95.6) 178 (91.8) 2.0 0.8–4.5
  1. aMultiple responses were considered
  2. bThose who rely solely on unsafe water for the indicated water contact activities
  3. * Significant association of P < 0.05
  4. Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; PSAC, preschool-aged children; WASH, water, sanitation and hygiene