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Table 3 Fixed effects in generalized linear mixed models to determine potential risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii-seropositivity in wild felids in human care. Data were analyzed by bivariable generalized linear mixed modelling including “Age” (years) as effect modifier and “Zoo” as random effects variable in modelling T. gondii-seropositivity. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to characterize the relative model quality

From: Toxoplasma gondii in small exotic felids from zoos in Europe and the Middle East: serological prevalence and risk factors

Category Model (AIC, model fit) Variable Odds ratio (95% CI) z-value P-value
Individual risk factors 1 (357.4) (Intercept) 0.523 (0.33–0.83) − 2.718 0.0066**
  Age 1.219 (1.21–1.23) 80.86 < 0.001***
2 (354.8) (Intercept) 0.401 (0.19–0.86) − 2.363 0.0181*
  Age 1.218 (1.12–1.32) 4.640 < 0.001***
  Sex: female (ref.)    
  Sex: male 1.779 (1.01–3.15) 1.976 0.0482*
Food-related risk factors 3 (300.6) (Intercept) 1.309 (0.46–3.76) 0.500 0.6171
  Age 1.224 (1.12–1.34) 4.278 < 0.001***
  Mice: fresh (ref.)    
  Mice: fresh/frozen 0.240 (0.06–0.99) − 1.975 0.0482*
  Mice: frozen 0.308 (0.08–1.13) − 1.776 0.0757
  Mice: no 0.407 (0.08–2.00) − 1.109 0.2675
4 (301.4) (Intercept) 1.474 (0.40–5.44) 0.582 0.5609
  Age 1.231 (1.12–1.35) 4.325 < 0.001***
  Rodents: fresh (ref.)    
  Rodents: fresh/frozen 0.277 (0.06–1.32) − 1.614 0.1066
  Rodents: frozen 0.250 (0.05–1.19) − 1.746 0.0809
  Rodents: no 0.445 (0.05–4.22) − 0.705 0.4807
5 (296.6) (Intercept) 0.986 (0.25–3.97) − 0.019 0.9845
  Age 1.232 (1.12–1.35) 4.327 < 0.001***
  Ruminants: fresh (ref.)    
  Ruminants: fresh/frozen 0.792 (0.14–4.60) − 0.260 0.7947
  Ruminants: frozen 0.158 (0.03–0.85) − 2.146 0.0319*
  Ruminants: no 0.763 (0.17–3.43) − 0.353 0.7242
6 (296.4) (Intercept) 1.157 (0.26–5.10) 0.192 0.8478
  Age 1.232 (1.12–1.35) 4.331 < 0.001***
  Cattle: fresh (ref.)    
  Cattle: fresh/frozen 0.675 (0.11–4.23) − 0.420 0.6744
  Cattle: frozen 0.135 (0.02–0.80) − 2.210 0.0271*
  Cattle: no 0.629 (0.13–3.07) − 0.573 0.5667
7 (301.9) (Intercept) 1.725 (0.36–8.17) 0.686 0.4925
  Age 1.222 (1.11–1.34) 4.195 < 0.001***
  Fowl: fresh (ref.)    
  Fowl: fresh/frozen 0.354 (0.07–1.92) − 1.204 0.2285
  Fowl: frozen 0.221 (0.04–1.13) − 1.817 0.0693
  Fowl: no 0.371 (0.02–5.62) − 0.715 0.4746
Breeding and housing-related risk factors 8 (321.4) (Intercept) 0.188 (0.06–0.59) − 2.859 0.0043**
  Age 1.229 (1.12–1.34) 4.526 < 0.001***
  Litters within 1 year-Null (ref.)    
  Few litters (1–2) within 1 year 3.767 (1.12–12.7) 2.365 0.0180*
  Many litters (≥ 3) within 1 year 5.097 (1.32–19.7) 2.138 0.0325*
9 (324.4) (Intercept) 0.224 (0.06–0.81) − 2.279 0.0227*
  Age 1.222 (1.12–1.34) 4.392 < 0.001***
  Litters within 5 years: null (ref.)    
  Few litters within 5 years, 1–9 2.311 (0.62–8.67) 2.115 0.0345*
  Many litters within 5 years, ≥ 10 4.191 (1.11–15.8) 1.242 0.2143
10 (297.9) (Intercept) 0.662 (0.30–1.45) − 1.031 0.3026
  Age 1.236 (1.12–1.36) 4.364 < 0.001***
  New World monkeys close by: no (ref.)    
  New World monkeys close by: yes 0.309 (0.08–1.16) − 1.738 0.0822
11 (298.4) (Intercept) 1.568 (0.41–6.06) 0.653 0.5140
  Age 1.216 (1.11–1.33) 4.196 < 0.001***
  Outdoor housing fenced in on all sides: no (ref.)    
  Outdoor housing fenced in on all sides: yes 0.297 (0.08–1.15) − 1.759 0.0785
12 (291.5) (Intercept) 2.169 (0.61–7.68) 1.177 0.2393
  Age 1.208 (1.10–1.32) 4.247 < 0.001***
  Mesh size > 5 cm (ref.)    
  Mesh size < 2 cm 0.511 (0.10–2.71) − 0.969 0.3326
  Mesh size 2–5 cm 0.204 (0.05–0.79) − 2.416 0.0157*
Hygiene related risk factors 13 (295.1) (Intercept) 0.862 (0.40–1.85) − 0.379 0.7044
  Age 1.225 (1.12–1.34) 4.347 < 0.001***
  Wearing gloves: no (ref.)    
  Wearing gloves: yes 0.286 (0.10–0.79) − 2.429 0.0151*
General health related risk factors 14 (248.5) (Intercept) 0.204 (0.07–0.61) − 2.829 0.0047**
  Age 1.256 (1.13–1.40) 4.196 < 0.001***
  Rabies vaccination: no (ref.)    
  Rabies vaccination: yes 4.910 (1.35–17.8) 2.417 0.01563*
15 (175.8) (Intercept) 0.048 (0.00–0.68) − 2.243 0.024903*
  Age 1.307 (1.12–1.52) 3.417 0.000633***
  Deworming interval (months) 1.449 (0.98–2.14) 1.876 0.060723
  1. Abbreviation: ref., reference
  2. P ≤ 0.05, ** P ≤ 0.01, *** P ≤ 0.001