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Table 6 Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in small cat species sampled in the present study compared with data from other studies

From: Toxoplasma gondii in small exotic felids from zoos in Europe and the Middle East: serological prevalence and risk factors

Species Test No. of samples Proportion of positive samples (%) Location Reference
Geoffroy’s cat (Leopardus geoffroyi) IB + IFAT 33 48.5 Europe Present study
Molecular/DNA 22 27.3 Brazil [97]
ELISA 8 25.0 Bolivian Chaco [98]
MAT 12 83.3 Brazil [39]
IFAT 1 0.00 California, USA [32]
MAT 1 100.0 Brazil [30]
Jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) IB + IFAT 9 55.6 Europe Present study
MAT 2 50.0 Mexico [13]
IFAT 25 40.0 Brazil [29]
Molecular/DNA 22 40.9 Brazil [97]
ELISA 1 100.0 USA [99]
IFAT 1 100.0 Brazil [100]
IFAT 1 100.0 Czech Republic/Slovak Republic [7]
MAT 99 46.5 Brazil [39]
IHA + MAT 2 50.0 Brazil [101]
IFAT 2 0.00 California, USA [32]
MAT 3 66.7 Brazil [30]
Margay (Leopardus wiedii) IB + IFAT 19 47.4 Europe Present study
IFAT 4 100.0 Brazil [29]
Molecular/DNA 10 60.0 Brazil [97]
MAT 2 50.0 Guatemala [102]
IHA 2 0.00 California, USA [10]
MAT 63 54.0 Brazil [39]
IHA + MAT 1 100.0 Brazil [101]
MAT 17 58.8 Brazil [30]
Oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus) IB + IFAT 9 66.7 Europe Present study
MAT 2 0.00 Mexico [13]
IFAT 35 62.9 Brazil [29]
Molecular/DNA 28 28.6 Brazil [97]
IFAT 1 100.0 Bolivia [103]
MAT 131 50.4 Brazil [39]
DT 9 66.7 Brazil [104]
MAT 22 68.2 Brazil [30]
Asian golden cat (Catopuma temminckii) IB + IFAT 2 50.0 Europe Present study
MAT 2 50.0 Australia [105]
IHA 3 33.3 California, USA [10]
LA 8 12.5 Thailand [31]
ELISA + MAT 6 83.3 Shanghai, China [106]
Fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) IB + IFAT 40 55.0 Europe Present study
IFAT 1 0.00 Brazil [29]
DT 1 100.0 Thailand [107]
MAT 4 25.0 Midwestern USA [11]
MAT 4 50.0 Australia [105]
IFAT 1 0.00 California, USA [32]
LA 27 22.2 Thailand [31]
Pallas’ cat (Otocolobus manul) IB + IFAT 52 90.4 Europe Present study
DAT + IFAT 8 100.0 Austria [19]
EIA + LA 9 100.0 USA [15]
MAT 5 20.0 Midwestern USA [11]
MAT 3 66.7 Wisconsin, USA [24]
LA 4 100.0 Denver, USA [17]
ELISA 6 100.0 Oklahoma, USA [22]
IHA 3 100.0 California, USA [23]
IFAT 2 100.0 Czech Republic/Slovak Republic [7]
ELISA 14 78.6 Ohio, USA [18]
Sand cat (Felis margarita IB + IFAT 87 54.0 Europe Present study
MAT 1 100.0 France [14]
MAT 20 70.0 UAE [16]
MAT 6 100.0 UAE [28]
  1. Abbreviations: IB, immunoblot; IFAT, immunofluorescent antibody test; DT, dye test; MAT, modified agglutination test; LA, latex agglutination test; DAT, direct agglutination test; EIA, enzyme immunoassay; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IHA, indirect hemagglutination, DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid