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Table 2 Chronological arrangement of reports of laboratory confirmed natural infections of NHPs with DENVs in countries around the world

From: Sylvatic cycles of arboviruses in non-human primates

Year Reference Country Primate speciesa Diagnostic test Prevalence (%)
1962–1964 Rudnick (1986) [23] Malaysia Silvered leaf monkey (Presbytis cristatus) HAI and SN 66.7 (26/39) and 47.8 (30/63)
1962–1964 Rudnick (1986) [23] Malaysia Crab-eating macaque (cynomolgus monkey) (Macaca fascicularis) HAI and SN 92.8 (64/69) and 68.7 (106/154)
1962–1964 Rudnick (1986) [23] Malaysia Southern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) HAI and SN 50.0 (1/2) and 50.0 (1/2)
1962–1964 Rudnick (1986) [23] Malaysia Sumatran surili (Presbytis melalophos) HAI and SN 75.0 (3/4) and 100 (2/2)
1963–1966 and 1978 Yuwono et al. (1984) [53] Japan (imported from Indonesia and the Philippines) Southeast Asian cynomolgus (Macaca iris) PRNT 35.8 (145/358)
1968 Rudnick (1986) [23] Malaysia Unspecified VI 100 (1/1)
1969, 1971–1972 Fagbami et al. (1977) [63] Nigeria Unspecified HAI and SN 48.9 (45/92)
1969, 1971–1972 Fagbami et al. (1977) [63] Nigeria Galagos HAI and SN 25.0 (3/12)
1972 Rudnick (1986) [23] Malaysia Dusky leaf monkey (Presbytis obscura) VI 100 (3/3)
1974–1982 Saluzzo et al. (1986) [61] Senegal Erythrocebus patas; Cercopithecus aethiops; Papio papio CFT 2.5 (10/395)
1982 Cornet et al. (1984) [20] Senegal Patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) VI 0.4 (1/250)
1986 De Silva et al. (1999) [57] Sri Lanka Toque macaque (Macaca sinica) ELISA 12.5 (2/16)
1987 De Silva et al. (1999) [57] Sri Lanka Toque macaque (Macaca sinica) ELISA 93.2 (41/44)
1987 Peiris et al. (1993) [56] Sri Lanka Toque macaque (Macaca sinica) PRNT 94.1 (64/68)
1991–2009 Kading et al. (2013) [26] Gabon Mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) PRNT 8.0 (2/25)
1995 De Silva et al. (1999) [57] Sri Lanka Toque macaque (Macaca sinica) ELISA 21.3 (52/244)
1996–1997 Wolfe et al. (2001) [58] Malaysia (Borneo) Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) PRNT 29.6 (21/71)
1999 Inoue et al. (2003) [59] The Philippines Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) ELISA 3.7 (2/54)
2000 Diallo et al. (2003) [29] Senegal African green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) ELISA 58.8 (10/17)
2006–2014 Catenacci et al. (2018) [67] Brazil Golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) PRNT 7.7 (8/103)
2008–2009 Nakgoi et al. (2014) [55] Thailand Pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina leonine) PRNT 32.7 (9/38)
2010 Morales et al. (2017) [66] Argentina Howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) PRNT 1.8 (2/108)
2010 Kato et al. (2013) [42] The Philippines Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) ELISA; PRNT; and PCR 33.0 (33/100); 22.9 (8/35); and 42.8 (3/7)
2010, 2012 Hemme et al. (2016) [65] USA (Puerto Rico) Patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) PRNT 100 (21/21)
2010, 2012 Hemme et al. (2016) [65] USA (Puerto Rico) Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) PRNT 100 (2/2)
2013 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Red-handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul) PRNT 100 (1/1)
2014 Eastwood et al. (2017) [25] Kenya Olive baboon (Papio anubis) ELISA 57.1 (4/7)
2014 Eastwood et al. (2017) [25] Kenya Yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus) ELISA 82.3 (14/17)
2014 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Red-handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul) PRNT 100 (1/1)
  1. aAs listed by the authors
  2. Abbreviations: CFT, complement fixation test; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HAI, haemagglutination inhibition; PRNT, plaque reduction neutralisation testing; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; SN, serum neutralization; VI, viral isolation