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Fig. 7 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 7

From: Disruption of gut integrity and permeability contributes to enteritis in a fish-parasite model: a story told from serum metabolomics

Fig. 7

Proposed integrative model of the pathophysiology of Enteromyxum leei in the gilthead sea bream from the present study and previous published data [43, 71, 73, 74, 102, 103]. The parasite induces anorexia, immune responses and changes in intestinal integrity. Integrity is altered due to changes in tight junctions (TJ), adherent junctions (AJ), mucus layer, parasite proliferation and host cell proliferation. Intestinal integrity is also affected by vitamin deletion, oxidative stress and inflammation. These changes are translated into gut permeability dysfunction, which, together with decreased food intake, produce nutrient depletion and osmotic intestinal failure. All this together with the energy cost of mounting an immune response, invokes cachexia and finally systemic failure and the death of the fish. The disease indicators are related to growth retardation [body weight (BW), condition factor (CF) and specific growth rate (SGR)], anaemia [haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hc)] and serum decrease of inosine and increase of creatine

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