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Fig. 1 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 1

From: From the feces to the genome: a guideline for the isolation and preservation of Strongyloides stercoralis in the field for genetic and genomic analysis of individual worms

Fig. 1

The life-cycle of S. stercoralis. Infective third-stage larvae (iL3s), which are all females, invade a new host by skin penetration and eventually establish in the small intestine of the host. The parasitic adult females reproduce by parthenogenesis and their progeny have four developmental options: (i) they may become female, and develop into infective third-stage larvae (iL3) within the host and re-infect the same host individual (autoinfective cycle); (ii) they may become female, leave the host as first-stage larvae and develop into iL3 in the environment and search for a new host (direct/homogonic development); (iii) they may become female, leave the host as first-stage larvae, and develop into free-living, non-infective third-stage larvae and subsequently into adult females (indirect/heterogonic development); (iv) they may become male and develop into free-living adult males (indirect/heterogonic cycle). The free-living adults mate and reproduce sexually in the environment and all their progeny are females and develop to iL3s. Copyright: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Modified from the original picture by A. Streit. Citation: Jaleta et al. (2017) Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and humans-dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2017, 11(8):e0005752 [26]

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