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Table 3 Summary of free-living trombiculid mites (larvae, nymphs and adults) tested by different laboratory categories. All species testing positive for O. tsutsugamushi at least once are shown with total and median numbers tested and testing positive

From: Scrub typhus ecology: a systematic review of Orientia in vectors and hosts

Laboratory method Vector speciesa Total no. tested Median no. tested Range Total no. positive Median no. positive/study site Medianpositive (%)
Combination culture and serology
  L. intermedium 3237 3237 3237 3 3 0.1
L. pallidum 1879 940 53–1826 288 144 15.3
L. deliense 570 570 570 10 10 1.8
L. palpale 177 177 177 0 0 0
L. scutellare 113 56 19–94 2 1 1.8
L. vivericola 80 80 80 1 1 1.3
 Pools L. intermedium 2 2 2 1 1 50.0
Combination culture +/− microscopy
  L. deliense 7060 3530 1180–5880 413 413 11.7
G. cassiope 6120 6120 6120–6120 0 0 0
A. indica 4930 4930 4930 0 0 0
L. scutellare 65 65 65 0 0 0
 Pools L. deliense 2 2 2 1 1 50.0
 Pools L. pavlovskyi ? ? ? 1 1
Serology
  L. scutellare 8444 591 235–2443 41 1 0.2
L. deliense 3030 289 41–949 132 16 5.5
L. intermedium 1208 1208 1208 2 2 0.2
L. pallidum 743 743 743 134 134 18.0
L. keukenshrijveri 646 646 646 15 15 2.3
L. fletcheri 404 202 13–391 14 7 3.5
L. vivericola 358 358 358 15 15 4.2
L. arvinum 181 90 58–123 9 4.5 5.0
Leptotrombidium sp. 127 127 127 9 9 7.1
Odontacarus sp. 81 81 81 3 3 3.7
L. bodense 77 21 9–47 2 2 9.5
L. peniculatum 67 67 67 1 1 1.5
E. wichmanni 23 23 23 2 2 8.7
M. chamlongi 5 5 5 1 1 20.0
Molecular
  L. scutellare 27 27 27 1 1 3.7
 Pools L. scutellare 242 121 8–234 7 4 3.3
 Pools L. fuji 14 14 14 1 1 7.0
 Pools N. japonica 1 1 1 1 1 100
  1. aLeptotombidium akamushi, L. pavlovskyi and Helenicula miyagawai were also reported as testing positive, but without a denominator
  2. Abbreviations: L, Leptotrombidium; G, Guntheria; A, Ascoschoengastia; E, Eutrombicula; M, Microtrombicula; N, Neotrombicula
  3. Key: +/−, with or without; ? unknown