Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary on localities and haplotypes found in the crater lakes and other regions studied

From: Molecular identification of Bulinus spp. intermediate host snails of Schistosoma spp. in crater lakes of western Uganda with implications for the transmission of the Schistosoma haematobium group parasites

Crater field Location Lake code Coordinates Altitude (m) Species No. of haplotypesa Specimen codea Specimen voucher Prep. no. GenBank ID [reference]
Latitude Longitude
Bunyaruguru Lake Bugwagyi, Uganda BGJ −0.19680°N 30.18663°E 1070 B. tropicus 1 BGJ1.1 UGSB 21302 25644 MN551518
      B. tropicus   BGJ1.2 UGSB 21303 25645 MN551519
Lake Chemab, Uganda   −0.25229°N 30.11444°E 1268   
Lake Kabarogyib, Uganda   −0.22692°N 30.21375°E 1352   
Lake Kakob, Uganda   −0.30484°N 30.09728°E 1405   
Lake Kamunzukub, Uganda   −0.26422°N 30.15410°E 1272   
Lake Kamwerub, Uganda   −0.26023°N 30.12223°E 1270   
Lake Kariyab, Uganda   −0.23010°N 30.16624°E 1256   
Lake Kasiriyab, Uganda   −0.25673°N 30.13180°E 1265   
Lake Katindab, Uganda   −0.22237°N 30.10978°E 1033   
Lake Kigezi, Uganda KGZ −0.28589°N 30.11084°E 1323 B. tropicus 1 KGZ1.1 UGSB 21308 25648 MN551520
      B. tropicus   KGZ1.2 UGSB 21309 25649 MN551521
Lake Kyamwiga, Uganda KMG −0.19196°N 30.15009°E 1035 B. tropicus 1 KMG1.1 UGSB 21296 25640 MN551516
      B. tropicus   KMG1.2 UGSB 21297 25641 MN551517
Lake Kyasanduka, Uganda   −0.28745°N 30.04731°E 1016 B. truncatus    UGSB 23628 27178 MN551575
      B. truncatus    UGSB 23629 27179 MN551576
Lake Mafuro, Uganda MFR −0.26749°N 30.10385°E 1279 B. tropicus 3 MFR1.1 UGSB 21287 25634 MN551510
      B. tropicus   MFR1.2 UGSB 21288 25635 MN551511
      B. tropicus   MFR2.1    HQ121571 [32]
Lake Mugogob, Uganda   −0.28262°N 30.12591°E 1323      
Lake Murambi, Uganda MRM −0.22512°N 30.10789°E 1079 B. tropicus   MRM1.1 UGSB 21290 25636 MN551512
      B. tropicus   MRM1.2 UGSB 21291 25637 MN551513
Lake Nyamusingireb, Uganda   −0.28455°N 30.03994°E 985   
Lake Nkuguteb, Uganda   −0.32068°N 30.10341°E 1404   
Lake Nyungu, Uganda NGU −0.25500°N 30.09524°E 1196 B. tropicus 2 NGU1.1 UGSB 21293 25638 MN551513
      B. tropicus   NGU1.2 UGSB 21294 25639 MN551515
      B. tropicus   NGU2.1    HQ121571 [32]
Lake Rwijongoc, Uganda RWG −0.27122°N 30.08909°E 1262 B. tropicus 2 RWG2.2    HQ121570 [32]
      B. tropicus   RWG2.3    HQ121571 [32]
Ndali Kasenda Lake Kanyabuterereb, Uganda   0.41485°N 30.28823°E 1201   
Lake Kanyamukali, Uganda KML 0.40699°N 30.23669°E 1167 B. tropicus 2 KML1.1 UGSB 21434 25839 MN551526
      B. tropicus   KML1.2 UGSB 21435 25840 MN551527
      B. tropicus   KML1.3 UGSB 16767 22523 MN551503
      B. tropicus   KML1.4 UGSB 16768 22524 MN551504
      B. tropicus   KML1.5 UGSB 16853 22571 MN551508
Lake Kanyangwe, Uganda KAG 0.45041°N 30.27586°E 1280 B. tropicus 3 KAG1.1 UGSB 22111 26335 MN551554
      B. tropicus   KAG1.2 UGSB 22112 26336 MN551555
      B. tropicus   KAG2.1    HQ121576 [32]
Lake Kasenda, Uganda KSD 0.43285°N 30.29179°E 1248 B. tropicus 5 KSD1.1 UGSB 21431 25837 MN551524
      B. tropicus   KSD1.2 UGSB 21432 25838 MN551525
      B. tropicus   KSD2.1    HQ121577 [32]
      B. tropicus   KSD2.2    HQ121578 [32]
      B. tropicus   KSD2.3    HQ121579 [32]
Lake Kibungo, Uganda KIG 0.39237°N 30.23338°E 1140 B. forskalii 1 KIG1.1 UGSB 22375 26620 MN551573
Lake Kifurukab, Uganda   0.48912°N 30.28845°E 1407   
Lake Kitere, Uganda KTR 0.39731°N 30.27346°E 1144 B. tropicus 2 KTR1.1 UGSB 21570 25956 MN551541
      B. tropicus   KTR1.2 UGSB 21571 25957 MN551542
Lake Kyanga, Uganda KYG 0.40022°N 30.23221°E 1167 B. tropicus 2 KYG1.1 UGSB 21455 25853 MN551532
      B. tropicus   KYG1.2 UGSB 21456 25854 MN551533
Lake Lugembe, Uganda LGB 0.44722°N 30.28123°E 1298 B. tropicus 1 LGB1.1 UGSB 22123 26343 MN551560
      B. tropicus   LGB1.2 UGSB 22124 26344 MN551561
Lake Lyantondeb, Uganda   0.48662°N 30.28024°E 1404   
Lake Mirambi, Uganda MRB 0.38902°N 30.22906°E 1144 B. forskalii 1 MRB1.1 UGSB 22120 26341 MN551559
      B. forskalii   MRB1.2 UGSB 22372 26618 MN551574
Lake Mubirob, Uganda   0.44144°N 30.25545°E 1212   
Lake Muligamire, Uganda MRR 0.42302°N 30.28884°E 1208 B. tropicus 1 MRR1.1 UGSB 21561 25950 MN551538
      B. tropicus   MRR1.2 UGSB 21562 25951 MN551539
Lake Mwamba, Uganda MBA 0.45746°N 30.27303°E 1307 B. tropicus 4 MBA1.1 UGSB 22093 26323 MN551547
      B. tropicus   MBA1.2 UGSB 22364 26610 MN551571
      B. tropicus   MBA1.3 UGSB 22365 26611 MN551570
      B. tropicus   MBA2.1    HQ121575 [32]
Lake Mwengenyi, Uganda MGY 0.48757°N 30.25972°E 1410 B. tropicus 2 MGY1.1 UGSB 22117 26339 MN551557
      B. tropicus   MGY1.2 UGSB 22118 26340 MN551558
Lake Ndichob, Uganda   0.44525°N 30.26904°E 1272   
Lake Njarayabana, Uganda NJN 0.42805°N 30.24747°E 1204 B. tropicus 2 NJN1.1 UGSB 22366 26612 MN551569
      B. tropicus   NJN1.2 UGSB 22367 26613 MN551568
Lake Nkuruba, Uganda NRB 0.51720°N 30.30324°E 1517 B. tropicus 6 NRB1.1 UGSB 21549 25942 MN551534
      B. tropicus   NRB1.2 UGSB 21550 25943 MN551535
      B. tropicus   NRB1.3 UGSB 16761 22517 MN551501
      B. tropicus   NRB1.4 UGSB 16762 22518 MN551502
      B. tropicus   NRB2.1    HQ121568 [32]
      B. tropicus   NRB2.2    HQ121567 [32]
      B. tropicus   NRB2.3    HQ121566 [32]
      B. tropicus   NRB2.4    HQ121569 [32]
Lake Ntambib, Uganda   0.40729°N 30.22946°E 1155   
Lake Ntanda/Katanda, Uganda KTD 0.47775°N 30.26165°E 1341 B. tropicus 1 KTD1.1 UGSB 22108 26333 MN551552
      B. tropicus   KTD1.2 UGSB 22109 26334 MN551553
Lake Nyabikere, Uganda NKR 0.50101°N 30.32792°E 1389 B. tropicus 3 NKR1.1 UGSB 21440 25843 MN551528
      B. tropicus   NKR1.2 UGSB 21441 25844 MN551529
      B. tropicus   NKR2.1    HQ121572 [32]
      B. tropicus   NKR2.2    HQ121574 [32]
Lake Nyahira, Uganda NHR 0.49914°N 30.28737°E 1458 B. tropicus 1 NHR1.1 UGSB 21552 25944 MN551536
      B. tropicus   NHR1.2 UGSB 21553 25945 MN551537
Lake Nyamirima, Uganda NMM 0.52001°N 30.32035°E 1497 B. tropicus 2 NMM1.1 UGSB 21720 26080 MN551543
      B. tropicus   NMM1.2 UGSB 21721 26081 MN551544
      B. tropicus   NMM2.1    HQ121568 [32]
Lake Nyamugosani, Uganda NGS 0.42498°N 30.23139°E 1237 B. tropicus 2 NGS1.1 UGSB 21428 25835 MN551522
      B. tropicus   NGS1.2 UGSB 21429 25836 MN551523
      B. tropicus   NGS1.3 UGSB 22099 26327 MN551550
Lake Nyamugorob, Uganda   0.44809°N 30.24233°E 1272   
Lake Nyamuteza, Uganda NTZ 0.43509°N 30.22866°E 1261 B. tropicus 2 NTZ1.1 UGSB 21734 26089 MN551545
      B. tropicus   NTZ1.2 UGSB 21735 26090 MN551546
Lake Nyanswiga, Uganda NSG 0.50733°N 30.28825°E 1479 B. tropicus 1 NSG1.1 UGSB 21567 25954 MN551540
      B. tropicus   NSG1.2 UGSB 22359 26606 MN551572
Lake Nyinabulita, Uganda NBT 0.50760°N 30.32533°E 1424 B. tropicus 2 NBT1.1 UGSB 21446 25847 MN551530
      B. tropicus   NBT1.2 UGSB 21447 25848 MN551531
Lake Nyinambuga, Uganda NNG 0.48109°N 30.28773°E 1372 B. tropicus 3 NNG1.1 UGSB 22106 26332 MN551551
      B. tropicus   NNG1.2 UGSB 22368 26614 MN551567
      B. tropicus   NNG1.3 UGSB 22369 26615 MN551566
      B. tropicus   NNG1.4 UGSB 17784 23160 MN551500
      B. tropicus   NNG2.1    HQ121573 [32]
Lake Rukwanzi, Uganda RKZ 0.47481°N 30.27925°E 1345 B. tropicus 1 RKZ1.1 UGSB 22115 26338 MN551556
      B. tropicus   RKZ1.2 UGSB 22370 26616 MN551565
      B. tropicus   RKZ1.3 UGSB 22371 26617 MN551564
Lake Rwandakara, Uganda RKR 0.41567°N 30.27054°E 1171 B. tropicus 2 RKR1.1 UGSB 22126 26345 MN551562
      B. tropicus   RKR1.2 UGSB 22127 26346 MN551563
Lake Rwenjuba, Uganda RJB 0.43922°N 30.26577°E 1257 B. tropicus 2 RJB1.1 UGSB 22096 26325 MN551548
      B. tropicus   RJB1.2 UGSB 22097 26326 MN551549
Lake Wankenzi, Uganda WKZ 0.41834°N 30.26326°E 1158 B. tropicus 3 WKZ1.1 UGSB 16770 22526 MN551505
      B. tropicus   WKZ1.2 UGSB 16839 22557 MN551507
      B. tropicus   WKZ1.3 UGSB 16854 22572 MN551509
Fort Portal Lake Balamab, Uganda   0.67959°N 30.23345°E 1566    
Lake Ekikootob, Uganda   0.70142°N 30.31342°E 1536    
Lake Kayiharab, Uganda   0.70256°N 30.31590°E 1549    
Lake Kyaninga, Uganda   0.70070°N 30.29919°E 1553    
Lake Saakab, Uganda   0.68700°N 30.23954°E 1569    
Lake Wabikereb, Uganda   0.68826°N 30.23518°E 1550    
Others (non crater lakes) Angola, Bengo, Cabungo      B. globosus      LT671918 [81]
      B. globosus      LT671947 [81]
Angola, Bengo, Burgalheira escola      B. globosus      LT671925 [81]
Angola, Luanda, Candimba/Muxima      B. globosus      LT671928 [81]
Angola, Kwanza Norte, Cacuso      B. globosus      LT671936 [81]
Angola, Luanda, Cassefo      B. forskalii      LT671955 [81]
Angola, Luanda, Caquila      B. forskalii      LT671956 [81]
Angola, Bengo, Porto mangueiras      B. forskalii      LT671950 [81]
      B. forskalii      LT671951 [81]
Angola, Kwanza Norte, N’Dalatando      B. forskalii      LT671957 [81]
Angola, Bengo, Icau Wando      B. forskalii      LT671966 [81]
      B. forskalii      LT671949 [81]
Angola, Malanje, Carlanga      B. forskalii      LT671961 [81]
      B. forskalii      LT671962 [81]
Angola, Malanje, Calandula      B. forskalii      LT671964 [81]
Angola, Quifangondo      B. forskalii      AM286306 [30]
Cameroon, Peptonoum-west CAM 5.63306°N 10.63528°E   B. tropicus 2 CAM1.1    KJ157495 [54]
      B. tropicus   CAM1.2    KJ157496 [54]
      B. tropicus      KJ157497 [54]
Burkina Faso, Mogtedo barrage   12.30647°N −0.82783°E   B. forskalii      AM286310 [30]
      B. globosus      AM286293 [30]
      B. truncatus      AM286315 [30]
Cameroon, Peptonoum-east      B. tropicus      KJ157492 [54]
      B. tropicus      KJ157494 [54]
Cameroon, Bertoua   4.58889°N 13.68111°E   B. truncatus      KJ135287 [54]
Cameroon, Mourtous      B. globosus      KJ157471 [54]
Cameroon, Yagoua      B. globosus      KJ157472 [54]
Cameroon, Kaprissi      B. globosus      KJ157475 [54]
Cameroon, Gounougou      B. globosus      KJ157473 [54]
Cameroon, Ouroudoukoudje      B. globosus      KJ157474 [54]
Cameroon, Kaele      B. senegalensis      KJ157481 [54]
      B. senegalensis      KJ157480 [54]
Cameroon, Kekem      B. truncatus      KJ135289 [54]
Cameroon, Mokolo      B. truncatus      KJ135291 [54]
Cameroon, Loum      B. truncatus      KJ135295 [54]
DR Congo, Lake Kivu      B. truncatus      HQ121561 [32]
Egypt, Quena   26.17306°N 32.16611°E   B. truncatus      KJ135304 [54]
Giza, Egypt   30.14139°N 31.07694°E   B. truncatus      KJ135300 [54]
Iran, Khouzestan      B. truncatus      KT365867
Kenya, Nimbodze      B. nasutus nasutus      AM921841 [30]
Kenya, Kisumu, Kandaria dam      B. globosus      AM286286 [30]
Kenya, Kinango      B. globosus      AM921844 [30]
Kenya, Kachetu      B. globosus      AM921847 [30]
Kenya, Mwamduli      B. globosus      AM921850 [30]
Malawi, Lake Malawi LM     B. nyassanus 1 LM1.1    AM921838 [30]
      B. africanus      AM286296 [30]
Niger, Satoni      B. forskalii      AM286308 [30]
      B. truncatus      AM286316 [30]
Niger, Tonida      B. globosus      AM286294 [30]
      B. globosus      AM921808 [30]
Nigeria, Ibaro, Ogun   7.15000°N 3.11667°E   B. truncatus      FN546781 [80]
Nigeria, Ilie   8.25000°N 4.96667°E   B. truncatus      FN546797 [80]
      B. truncatus      FN546797 [80]
Nigeria, Oshogbo   8.08333°N 4.66667°E   B. truncatus      FN546805 [80]
      B. truncatus      FN546805 [80]
Nigeria, Oju Alaro      B. globosus      FN546815 [80]
Nigeria, Ipogun      B. globosus      FN546814 [80]
Nigeria, Imala, Odo      B. truncatus      FN546787 [80]
Nigeria, Awuru      B. truncatus      FN546786 [80]
Oman      B. wrighti      AM286318 [30]
Rwanda, rice scheme dam lake   −1.28652°N 30.31509°E 1349 Bulinus sp.    UGSB 16778 22532 MN551579
      B. truncatus    UGSB 16777 22531 MN551578
Rwanda, Lake Muhazi   −1.85912°N 30.49039°E 1452 B. truncatus    UGSB 16755 22511 MN551581
Rwanda, Lake Muhazi   −1.84843°N 30.47826°E 1455 B. truncatus    UGSB 4936 22549 MN551580
Sardinia, Posada   40.63487°N 9.67537°E   B. truncatus      AM286312 [30]
Sao Tome and Principe, Sao Tome Island      B. forskalii      AM286305 [30]
Senegal, Dakar      B. forskalii      AM286307 [30]
Senegal, Diama   15.43611°N 16.23389°E   B. truncatus      KJ135306 [54]
Senegal, Toukar      B. senegalensis      KJ157483 [54]
Senegal, Diohine      B. senegalensis      KJ157484 [54]
      B. senegalensis      KJ157485 [54]
Senegal, Poudaye      B. senegalensis      KJ157486 [54]
South Africa, Lake Sibaya SA     B. natalensis 1 SA1.1    AM286311 [30]
South Africa, Pietermaritzburg      B. globosus      AM286289 [30]
      B. globosus      AM286290 [30]
South Africa, Durban Isipingo      B. africanus      AM286295 [30]
Tanzania, Muyuni, Unguja   −6.37845°N 39.46415°E   B. nasutus productus      AM286299 [30]
Tanzania, Njombe Kibena TZ −9.20382°N 34.78402°E   B. tropicus 1 TZ1.1    AM921834 [30]
      B. tropicus   TZ1.2    AM921837 [30]
      B. tropicus   TZ1.3    AM921842 [30]
Tanzania, Lake Sagara,   −5.25140°N 31.08518°E   Bulinus sp.      AM286298 [30]
Tanzania, Ihayabuyaga      B. nasutus productus      AM286300 [30]
      B. nasutus productus      AM286301 [30]
Tanzania, Njombe Rujewa      B. nasutus productus      AM921833 [30]
Tanzania, Zanzibar Vitonguji, Pemba Island   −5.23378°N 39.82843°E   B. nasutus productus      AM921809 [30]
Tanzania, Zanzibar, Pemba Island   −5.17120°N 39.82198°E   B. nasutus productus      AM921811 [30]
Tanzania, Zanzibar, Pemba Island   −4.92803°N 39.73785°E   Bulinus sp.      AM921832 [30]
Tanzania, Zanzibar, Pemba Island      B. globosus      MH014041 [82]
Tanzania, Zanzibar, Pemba Island, Kangagani      B. barthi      AM921818 [30]
Tanzania, Zanzibar, Mafia Island      B. nasutus nasutus      AM921831 [30]
Tanzania, Zanzibar, Mafia Island, Kanga swamp      B. barthi      AM921814 [30]
      B. globosus      AM921823 [30]
Tanzania, Iringa      B. globosus      AM286288 [30]
      B. globosus      AM921821 [30]
Tanzania, Ungunja, Kinyasini      B. globosus      AM921839 [30]
Uganda, Lake Victoria LV −0.30371°N 32.28927°E 1228 B. tropicus 1 LV1.1 UGSB 16774 22530 MN551506
Uganda, Lake George LG     B. forskalii 2 LG1.1    HQ121586 [32]
      B. forskalii   LG1.2    HQ121585 [32]
Uganda, Lake Edward LE     B. forskalii 2 LE1.1    HQ121583 [32]
      B. forskalii   LE1.2    HQ121584 [32]
Uganda, Lake Albert LA     B. forskalii 4 LA1.1    HQ121582 [32]
      B. forskalii   LA1.2    HQ121580 [32]
      B. forskalii   LA1.3    HQ121581 [32]
      B. forskalii   LA1.4    HQ121587 [32]
      B. tropicus 2 LA1.5    HQ121564 [32]
      B. tropicus   LA1.6    HQ121565 [32]
      B. tropicus   LA1.7    GU176751 [50]
      B. tropicus   LA1.8    GU176750 [50]
Uganda, Toonya, Lake Albert      B. truncatus      GU176749 [50]
Uganda, Booma, Lake Albert      B. truncatus      GU176747 [50]
Uganda, Katosho swamp KS     B. forskalii 2 KS1.1    HQ121588 [32]
      B. forskalii   KS1.2    HQ121587 [32]
      B. truncatus      HQ121563 [32]
      B. truncatus      HQ121562 [32]
Uganda, Lake Tanganyika LT     B. forskalii 3 LT1.1    HQ121590 [32]
      B. forskalii   LT1.2    HQ121589 [32]
      B. forskalii   LT1.3    HQ121587 [32]
Uganda, Albert Nile River   3.47032°N 31.92267°E   B. globosus      AM286291 [30]
Uganda, Lake Kyoga   1.82235°N 33.53725°E   B. nasutus productus      AM921815 [30]
      Bulinus sp.      AM921819 [30]
Uganda, Kahirimbi   −08205° N 30.8559 °E 1249 Bulinus sp.    UGSB 24296 19415 MN551577
Uganda, Maramagambo Forest      Bulinus sp.      HQ121591 [32]
Uganda, Lake Victoria   0.13707°N 33.60149°E 1135 B. truncatus    UGSB 16757 22513 MN551582
      B. truncatus    UGSB 16758 22514 MN551583
Uganda, Nile River   1.69249°N 32.09664°E 1035 B. truncatus    UGSB 16760 22516 MN551585
      B. truncatus    UGSB 16759 22515 MN551584
Zimbabwe, laboratory strain ZW     B. tropicus 1 ZW1.1    AY282583 [37]
  1. Notes: Data include the crater field region, geographical coordinates, altitude (obtained from GoogleEarth Pro, number of haplotypes, specimen code (used for the network analyses), species, DNA preparation number (prep. no.), specimen voucher (UGSB, University of Giessen Systematics and Biodiversity collection) and GenBank accession number. Bulinus specimens from Lake Kyaninga could not be amplified. Note that a few GenBank numbers of other authors are occurring in more than one locality because they represent same haplotypes. Locality information and geographical coordinates of GenBank sequences are provided as they were published
  2. aNumber of haplotypes and specimen codes are only given for specimens used in the network analyses
  3. bLakes that did not yield populations of Bulinus
  4. cCrater lake where currently no Bulinus were found but sequences on GenBank were available