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Table 3 Effects of marker size, number of swarming mosquitoes and number of released mosquitoes on swarm characteristics in An. gambiae in laboratory setups (design 2)

From: Sex aggregation and species segregation cues in swarming mosquitoes: role of ground visual markers

   Marker size Number of swarming mosquitoes Number of released mosquitoes
Ø 20 cm 60 cm χ2 df P-value χ2 df P-value χ2 df P-value
Males Swarm dimensions (± SE) (cm)
 Maximal 72.1 ± 1.1 76.9 ± 1.6 75.0 ± 1.3 4.97 2 0.083 9.72 1 0.001 na na na
 Nucleus 50.9 ± 1.0 52.5 ± 1.4 51.5 ± 1.2 1.56 2 0.462 3.29 1 0.072 na na na
 Minimal 31.8 ± 1.1 33.3 ± 1.5 31.5 ± 1.4 0.88 2 0.641 10.84 1 < 0.001 na na na
 Amplitude 40.3 ± 1.6 43.5 ± 2.4 43.5 ± 2.0 3.81 2 0.148 23.09 1 < 0.001 na na na
 Width 29.1 ± 0.9b 34.4 ± 1.6c 39.8 ± 1.2d 25.87 2 < 0.001 11.95 1 < 0.001 na na na
Swarm sizea (± SE)
 No. of swarming mosquitoes 21.5 ± 1.3b 27.1 ± 2.2c 32.3 ± 2.3d 27.14 2 < 0.001 na na na 21.19 1 < 0.001
Females Swarm dimensions (± SE) (cm)
 Height 43.4 ± 1.1b 52.7 ± 1.4c 51.8 ± 1.1c 91.04 2 < 0.001 5.56 1 0.018 na na na
Swarm size (± SE)
 No. of swarming mosquitoes 3.7 ± 0.5 b 7.0 ± 1.4c 9.6 ± 1.6c 44.12 2 < 0.001 na na na 0.02 1 0.871
Swarming frequency (no./5min ± SE)
 Frequency 9.3 ± 0.3b 15.0 ± 0.3c 15.5 ± 0.3c 105.83 2 < 0.001 na na na 0.22 1 0.632
  1. aSwarm size expressed as the number of swarming mosquitoes
  2. Abbreviations: Ø, absence of marker; SE, standard error; na, not included in the analyses
  3. Notes: Significant P-values are in bold. Different superscript letters indicate significant differences between marker sizes (P < 0.05)