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Table 3 Effects of marker size, number of swarming mosquitoes and number of released mosquitoes on swarm characteristics in An. gambiae in laboratory setups (design 2)

From: Sex aggregation and species segregation cues in swarming mosquitoes: role of ground visual markers

  Marker sizeNumber of swarming mosquitoesNumber of released mosquitoes
Ø20 cm60 cmχ2dfP-valueχ2dfP-valueχ2dfP-value
MalesSwarm dimensions (± SE) (cm)
 Maximal72.1 ± 1.176.9 ± 1.675.0 ± 1.34.9720.0839.7210.001nanana
 Nucleus50.9 ± 1.052.5 ± 1.451.5 ± 1.21.5620.4623.2910.072nanana
 Minimal31.8 ± 1.133.3 ± 1.531.5 ± 1.40.8820.64110.841< 0.001nanana
 Amplitude40.3 ± 1.643.5 ± 2.443.5 ± 2.03.8120.14823.091< 0.001nanana
 Width29.1 ± 0.9b34.4 ± 1.6c39.8 ± 1.2d25.872< 0.00111.951< 0.001nanana
Swarm sizea (± SE)
 No. of swarming mosquitoes21.5 ± 1.3b27.1 ± 2.2c32.3 ± 2.3d27.142< 0.001nanana21.191< 0.001
FemalesSwarm dimensions (± SE) (cm)
 Height43.4 ± 1.1b52.7 ± 1.4c51.8 ± 1.1c91.042< 0.0015.5610.018nanana
Swarm size (± SE)
 No. of swarming mosquitoes3.7 ± 0.5 b7.0 ± 1.4c9.6 ± 1.6c44.122< 0.001nanana0.0210.871
Swarming frequency (no./5min ± SE)
 Frequency9.3 ± 0.3b15.0 ± 0.3c15.5 ± 0.3c105.832< 0.001nanana0.2210.632
  1. aSwarm size expressed as the number of swarming mosquitoes
  2. Abbreviations: Ø, absence of marker; SE, standard error; na, not included in the analyses
  3. Notes: Significant P-values are in bold. Different superscript letters indicate significant differences between marker sizes (P < 0.05)