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Table 3 Occurrence of single and mixed infections of microorganisms in bovine ticks from six districts of Pakistan

From: Bovine ticks harbour a diverse array of microorganisms in Pakistan

Microorganism Overall prevalence (%) Proportion of ticks positive for microorganisms
Okara
(n = 82)a
Jhelum
(n = 24)
Bahawalpur
(n = 63)
Thatta
(n = 14)
Sukkur
(n = 25)
Layyah
(n = 26)
Single infection
 Francisella-like 40.2 32 13 22 5 10 12
 Piroplasms 0.9 0 1 1 0 0 0
Mixed infection with two microorganisms
 Francisella-like + Piroplasms 15.8 12 2 17 0 5 1
 Francisella-like + Ehrlichia spp. 9.4 6 1 5 3 2 5
 Francisella-like + Borrelia spp. 2.1 2 2 0 0 1 0
 Francisella-like + Rickettsia spp. 0.4 0 0 0 0 1 0
 Francisella-like + A. marginale 3.8 6 1 1 0 1 0
 Francisella-like + A. centrale 0.9 1 0 1 0 0 0
 Francisella-like + Hepatozoon spp. 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 1
 Francisella-like + Coxiella-like 0.4 1 0 0 0 0 0
 Ehrlichia spp. + Piroplasms 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 1
 A. marginale + Piroplasms 0.4 0 1 0 0 0 0
 Francisella-like + A. ovis 1.3 0 0 2 0 1 0
 Rickettsia spp. + R. massiliae 1.3 0 0 0 3 0 0
Mixed infection with three microorganisms
 Francisella-like + Piroplasms + Borrelia spp. 1.7 2 0 2 0 0 0
 Francisella-like + Ehrlichia spp. + Borrelia spp. 0.9 0 0 1 0 1 0
 Francisella-like + Ehrlichia spp. + A. centrale 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 1
 Francisella-like + Piroplasms + A. phagocytophilum 0.4 0 0 0 1 0 0
 Francisella-like + Ehrlichia spp. + Piroplasms 6.8 7 0 4 0 2 3
 Francisella-like + Piroplasms + Coxiella-like 0.4 1 0 0 0 0 0
 Francisella-like + Borrelia spp. + A. marginale 0.4 0 0 1 0 0 0
 Francisella-like + A. marginale + Piroplasms 1.3 3 0 0 0 0 0
 Francisella-like + A. ovis + Piroplasms 0.4 0 0 1 0 0 0
 Francisella-like + A. centrale + Piroplasms 0.4 0 0 1 0 0 0
 Francisella-like + R. massiliae + Rickettsia spp. 0.4 0 0 0 1 0 0
Mixed infection with four microorganisms
 Francisella-like + Borrelia spp. + Piroplasms + Ehrlichia spp. 0.4 1 0 0 0 0 0
 Francisella-like + Borrelia spp. + Ehrlichia spp. + A. marginale 0.4 0 0 1 0 0 0
 Francisella-like + A. marginale + A. centrale + Piroplasms 0.4 1 0 0 0 0 0
 Francisella-like + Ehrlichia spp. + Coxiella-like + Piroplasms 0.4 1 0 0 0 0 0
 Francisella-like + Ehrlichia spp. + B. ovis + Piroplasms 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 1
Mixed infection with five microorganisms
 Francisella-like + Borrelia spp. + Piroplasms + Ehrlichia spp. + A. marginale 0.4 1 0 0 0 0 0
 Francisella-like + A. marginale + A. centrale + Bartonella spp. + Theileria spp. 0.4 1 0 0 0 0 0
Total positives per district   78 21 60 13 24 25
  1. aNumber of ticks examined in each district