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Table 3 Occurrence of single and mixed infections of microorganisms in bovine ticks from six districts of Pakistan

From: Bovine ticks harbour a diverse array of microorganisms in Pakistan

MicroorganismOverall prevalence (%)Proportion of ticks positive for microorganisms
Okara
(n = 82)a
Jhelum
(n = 24)
Bahawalpur
(n = 63)
Thatta
(n = 14)
Sukkur
(n = 25)
Layyah
(n = 26)
Single infection
 Francisella-like40.232132251012
 Piroplasms0.9011000
Mixed infection with two microorganisms
 Francisella-like + Piroplasms15.812217051
 Francisella-like + Ehrlichia spp.9.4615325
 Francisella-like + Borrelia spp.2.1220010
 Francisella-like + Rickettsia spp.0.4000010
 Francisella-like + A. marginale3.8611010
 Francisella-like + A. centrale0.9101000
 Francisella-like + Hepatozoon spp.0.4000001
 Francisella-like + Coxiella-like0.4100000
 Ehrlichia spp. + Piroplasms0.4000001
 A. marginale + Piroplasms0.4010000
 Francisella-like + A. ovis1.3002010
 Rickettsia spp. + R. massiliae1.3000300
Mixed infection with three microorganisms
 Francisella-like + Piroplasms + Borrelia spp.1.7202000
 Francisella-like + Ehrlichia spp. + Borrelia spp.0.9001010
 Francisella-like + Ehrlichia spp. + A. centrale0.4000001
 Francisella-like + Piroplasms + A. phagocytophilum0.4000100
 Francisella-like + Ehrlichia spp. + Piroplasms6.8704023
 Francisella-like + Piroplasms + Coxiella-like0.4100000
 Francisella-like + Borrelia spp. + A. marginale0.4001000
 Francisella-like + A. marginale + Piroplasms1.3300000
 Francisella-like + A. ovis + Piroplasms0.4001000
 Francisella-like + A. centrale + Piroplasms0.4001000
 Francisella-like + R. massiliae + Rickettsia spp.0.4000100
Mixed infection with four microorganisms
 Francisella-like + Borrelia spp. + Piroplasms + Ehrlichia spp.0.4100000
 Francisella-like + Borrelia spp. + Ehrlichia spp. + A. marginale0.4001000
 Francisella-like + A. marginale + A. centrale + Piroplasms0.4100000
 Francisella-like + Ehrlichia spp. + Coxiella-like + Piroplasms0.4100000
 Francisella-like + Ehrlichia spp. + B. ovis + Piroplasms0.4000001
Mixed infection with five microorganisms
 Francisella-like + Borrelia spp. + Piroplasms + Ehrlichia spp. + A. marginale0.4100000
 Francisella-like + A. marginale + A. centrale + Bartonella spp. + Theileria spp.0.4100000
Total positives per district 782160132425
  1. aNumber of ticks examined in each district