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Fig. 5 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 5

From: Gene copy number and function of the APL1 immune factor changed during Anopheles evolution

Fig. 5

Transcription of Anopheles stephensi APL1 is regulated by both Toll and Imd immune signaling pathways. Regulation of expression of the unique An. stephensi APL1 gene was queried by silencing the negative regulator of Toll, Cactus (a and b) or the positive regulator of Imd, Rel2 (c and d). a Cactus expression is efficiently repressed by treatment with dsRNA targeting Cactus (dsCactus). Graph indicates fold change of Cactus expression by dsCactus treatment as compared to dsGFP controls. b APL1 expression is augmented by silencing of Cactus, which constitutively activates the Toll pathway. Graph indicates fold change of APL1 gene expression in An. stephensi depleted for Cactus by dsCactus treatment, relative to dsGFP treated controls. c Rel2 expression is efficiently suppressed by treatment with dsRNA targeting Rel2 (dsRel2). Graph indicates fold change of Rel2 expression by dsRel2 treatment as compared to dsGFP controls. d APL1 expression is diminished by silencing of Rel2, which inhibits Imd pathway activity. Graph indicates fold change of APL1 gene expression in An. stephensi depleted for Rel2 by dsRel2 treatment, relative to dsGFP treated controls. Transcript abundance is measured by quantitative RT-PCR in two biological replicates as indicated

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